Xenophobia is the fear of strangers. Homophobia is the fear of homosexuals. Who is a 'stranger' and what is to be feared are important to conflict perspectives and to the quest for social justice. Xenophobia is distrust of anything perceived as foreign.
Xenophobia is related to the concepts of racism and ethnocentrism. South African Human Rights Commission identified xenophobia as a source of concern. Xenophobia is an individual's irrational hatred of people perceived as different and foreign.
Xenophilia, also called Xenophily, is affection for unknown objects or human beings. Xenophilia is the opposite of xenophobia or xenophoby. Evidence of xenophobia can be seen in violent assaults on immigrants by hands of citizens. The convergence of ideology and a sense of threat in the political culture produces political xenophobia.
Xenophobia can be overcome by appreciating the ideas of culture and social structure. Research on xenophobia is dominated by social identity theory considerations of group identity. Larger immigrant populations dampen xenophobic attitudes, supportive of the social contact theory.
Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants - Yakushko, Oksana, Counseling Psychologist, v37 n1 p36-66 2009. Abstract: Multicultural research is explored to examine the causes of negative attitudes toward immigration. Expressions of xenophobia in the United States are are compared with scholarship in cross-culture.
the Future May Bring - Xenophobia among Swedish Adolescents
Mikael Hjerm, Umea University, Sweden - Acta Sociologica, Vol. 48, No. 4, 292-307 (2005). Falling resources for the teaching of values of liberal democracy and multiculturalism. The empirical evidence are drawn from a national sample. How xenophobia among Swedish teenage school adolescents is related to other values in the democratic system.
Ethnocentrism and Xenophobia: A Cross-Cultural Study Elizabeth Cashdan - People readily develop strong loyalties to their own ethnic group and discriminate against outsiders. Cross-cultural analysis data is used to determine the factors that strengthen and weaken these tendencies.
Xenophobia and Ethnoviolence
in Contemporary Germany - Marina A. Adler
Department of Sociology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 5401 Wilkens Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21228.
Uses 1980s and 1990s data on xenophobia in Germany to organize theoretical arguments holding capitalism, social change and political culture responsible for the observed patterns.
African Union: Xenophobia as poor intercultural communication - Matt Mogekwu.
The world is moving towards globalisation and Africa is addressing both intra-national and international communication crises. That xenophobia is a cultural blind spot and source of conflict which could be addressed functionally and formally.
Xenophobia and Immigrant Contact: Public Attitudes Toward Immigrants -
Digiusto, Gerald. and Jolly, Seth.
Abstract: Does the presence of minorities in a local community affect xenophobic attitudes?
and right-wing-extremism in German youth groups - Some evidence against unidimensional
Wolfgang Frindte, Friedrich Funke and Sven Waldzus, University of Jena, Germany
Abstract: The xenophobian orientations among young people have been studied after the German reunification. The overlap between extreme right-wing social orientation and other variables are analyzed.
Reconsidering Fascist Anti-Semitism and Xenophobia in 1920s France: The Doctrinal Contribution of Georges Valois and the Faisceau - Samuel Kalman, Salem College in Winston-Salem.
Abstract: The subject of fascism in interwar France has prioritized the issues of anti-Semitism and xenophobia.
Xenophobia on a Suburban
Paris Housing Estate - Haegel F.
Patterns of Prejudice, Volume 34, Number 1, 1 January 2000 , pp. 29-38(10)
Abstract: The paradigm of the xenophobic discourse seems to be hospitality rather than allowing the foreigner a place of his or her own.
Development of Xenophobia in Germany: The Adolescent Years
Boehnke, Klaus; Hagan, John; Hefler, Gerd - Journal of Social Issues, Volume 54, Number 3, Fall 1998 , pp. 585-602(18).
Abstract: Xenophobic incidents occurring in Germany have drawn high media attention due to historical reasons. Two-wave cross-sectional study and a two-cohort longitudinal study to asses levels of xenophobia in the adolescent years.
Hatred by hated people: xenophobia in Israel
Pedahzur, Ami, Yishai, Yael - Taylor & Francis Ltd. Publication Name: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. Research to examine the xenophobia majority in Israel basing on a survey of a Jewish urban population. Findings prove the existence of hatred and levels of hatred differed according to targeted social groups.
The culture of local xenophobia - K. D. M. Snell
Published in: Social History, Volume 28, Issue 1 January 2003 , pages 1 - 30
Abstract: Local xenophobia in rural and cottage-industrial areas of England and Wales during the period 1700-1938. The culture of local xenophobia is discussed.
The chill wind of Korean xenophobia - Kim Wan-Soon, Lee You-Il
Review Publishing Company Ltd. (Hong Kong), Far Eastern Economic Review
Abstract: Xenophobia of South Korea has re-emerged. The increasing number of foreign-controlled banks and the rise of grievance cases have impelled Korea to dislike foreign capital.
Political Xenophobia in the Transition from Socialism: Threat, Racism and Ideology among East German Youth. by: Meredith W. Watts - Political Psychology, Vol. 17, No. 1. (1996), pp. 97-126.
Abstract: Political xenophobia is a form of hostility toward foreigners that requires a chain of elements.
Xenophilia or Xenophobia in American Courts? Before and After 9/11
Kevin M. Clermont, Theodore Eisenberg, Cornell University - School of Law
Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 06-018
Abstract: Data indicate that foreigners have fared better in the federal courts than their domestic counterparts. Data offer no support for the existence of xenophobic bias nor do they establish xenophilia.
National Identity and Xenophobia in an Ethnically Divided Society - Noah Lewin-Epstein and Asaf Levanon
Abstract: National identity is empirically related to negative sentiments of individuals towards foreigners. The notion that xenophobia is shaped by the specific nature of national identity in a given society.
A new perspective in social research: Xenophobia: The deep roots of extreme emotions. WAHL Klaus ; TRAMITZ Christiane.
DJI-Bulletin ISSN 0947-7012 2003, pp. 7-11.
Abstract: Violence against foreigners and murders of homeless people committed during the past decade have rekindled the debate on xenophobia in united Germany.
International Outsourcing: Legality of Xenophobia in Outsourcing - Outsourcing Law. Overview: Layoffs during the downward economic cycle following the dot.com bubble and the 9/11 attack have had a severe impact on the local economies.
Xenophobia in South Africa: the views, opinions and experiences of international students at the Rand Afrikaans University
Shindondola, Hilma Kupila
Rand Afrikaans University, Issue Date: 27-Oct-2008 Xenophobia research.
Abstract: The nature of xenophobia in South Africa the experiences of international students and their views about xenophobia.
Migration, Integration and Xenophobia in South Africa
How the issues are being faced in a Township in an Industrial Metropolis
Anna Ihle, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
Political Uses of Xenophobia in England, France and Germany
Dietrich Thranhardt - Party Politics, Vol. 1, No. 3, 323-345 (1995)
The nature of xenophobia and why race politics were employed in West Europe at the end of the Cold War. The ups and downs of xenophobia as a product of campaign strategies.
National identity and xenophobia: the interplay between economic interests and identity issues in cross-national perspective - Coenders, Marcel. and Hjerm, Mikael.
Racism and Xenophobia: A Brief Note on the Scottish Experience - Honourable Lord Gill. The Scottish Law Commission, 140 Causewayside, Edinburgh, EH9 1PR, UK - Journal Liverpool Law Review.
XENOPHOBIA AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SOUTH AFRICA
Series Editor: Jonathan Crush, Southern African Migration Project, Migration Policy Series No. 22. What is the evidence of xenophobia against African immigrants? The SAHRC launched a education programme known as the Roll Back Xenophobia Campaign. The Congress of South African Trade Unions have also condemned xenophobia.