Organized Crime, Blue-collar Crime, Pink-collar
Crime, Political Crime, Occupational Crime, Conventional
Crime, Corporate Crime, Organizational Crime
White-collar refers to a person engaged in non-manual, especially clerical or
administrative work. Edwin Sutherland in 1945, referred to the illegal activities of
businesses and corporations committed to further the goals of the business as white-collar
White collar crime or economic crime could take different forms, including
bribery, cyber crime, asset misappropriation, cheque and credit card fraud, identity
theft, insurance fraud, money laundering and counterfeiting.
White-collar crimes were not regulated by criminal law but by regulatory laws of
various kinds. These acts included false advertising, anti-trust violations, environmental
pollution or dumping product on the market below cost.
According to a 2006 study by the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law,
White-collar crime costs the United States as much as $400 billion annually. That is more
than 10 times the annual budget of the state of Michigan.
Criminologists now call this corporate crime or organizational
crime and reserve the term white-collar crime for those illegal acts committed by
people in positions of trust in white-collar jobs, like, making personal long-distance
calls on an employer's account.
Understanding the Nature of White-collar Crime - Liu, Haiyan.
Abstract: Traditional criminological theorists tend not to directly address white-collar
crime issues, while white-collar crime scholars havent been paying much attention to
the development of major traditional criminological theories until very recently. While
reviewing and comparing four major classical criminological theories, learning/differential association, rational choice/opportunity, strain
and social control theory, this paper addresses
the question that how these theories have been or could be used to explain the nature of
Are White-Collar and Common Offenders the Same? An Empirical and
Theoretical Critique of a Recently Proposed General Theory of Crime -
MICHAEL L. BENSON, ELIZABETH MOORE -
Addresses two propositions on white-collar crime derived from a general theory of crime
recently proposed by Gottfredson and Hirschi. This theory predicts that white-collar
offenders are (a) as criminally versatile and (b) as prone to deviance as common
offenders. Authors investigate the criminal records of white-collar crime and common
offenders and their respective levels of participation in deviant activities. Some
white-collar offenders are involved in crime and deviance to much the same degree as
typical street criminals. Large majority differ significantly from street criminals in
these regards, contradicting the theory and limiting its generality. Authors argue that
the theory's rejection of motives as important causal forces is misguided and that a more
complex causal structure is needed to account for patterns of white-collar crime and white
Women and White-Collar Crime
George Robb, History Faculty, William Paterson University in New Jersey
Abstract: In Victorian society, women of the middle class were particularly vulnerable to
white-collar crimes. Denied opportunities to earn their own living, single women were
especially dependent on invested capital. Women, in fact, made up a significant portion of
investors during the nineteenth century, especially in such key areas of the economy as
banking, railways and insurance. This article uses financial literature, newspaper debates
and popular fiction to demonstrate how women were victimized by white-collar crime.
White Collar Crime Steals
Thunder From Conventional Crime, Says Police Chief
KUALA LUMPUR, Oct 28 (Bernama) - White collar crime steals the thunder from conventional
crime as it potentially affects the financial performance of commercial organisations in
the country. Deputy Inspector-General of Police Tan Sri Ismail Omar said white collar
crime or economic crime could take different forms, including bribery, cyber crime, asset
misappropriation, cheque and credit card fraud, identity theft, insurance fraud, money
laundering and counterfeiting. Capitalists, corporate executives and even criminologists
argued that white collar crime took a back seat to a strong national focus on more
White-Collar Crime and
Specifying a Trajectory of Punctuated Situational Offending
Nicole Leeper Piquero, University of Florida, Michael L. Benson, University of Cincinnati
Abstract: Noticeably lacking in the study of life course criminology, however, is any
recognition of white-collar offenders. The typical white-collar offender greatly differs
from the typical street offender and does not appear to fit into the proposed explanations
of life course offending patterns. Some scholars have applied the techniques and
terminology of the criminal career perspective to white-collar offending. Article reviews
the current state of developmental theories as they apply to life course offending
patterns, summarizes what is known about the intersection of white-collar crime and
criminal careers, and suggests ways in which the current theoretical understandings of
crime over the life course can be modified to account for white-collar crime patterns.
On the Moral Structure of White-Collar Crime
Mitchell N. Berman - University of Texas School of Law, Ohio State Journal of Criminal
Law, Vol. 5, p. 301, 2007
Abstract: White-collar crime has long presented a puzzle for, or a challenge to, theorists
of the criminal law. Indeed, it might be more accurate to say that it presents at least
two sorts of puzzles. Some white-collar offenses are puzzling through and through: we are
perplexed about why the conduct at the core of the offense is criminalized in the first
place. Insider trading is like this, as is (assuming that it counts as white-collar crime)
This review essay critically examines Stuart Green's attempt to resolve these puzzles in
his fascinating new book, Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White-Collar
Crime. The book's central thesis, I argue, is that the contours of white-collar criminal
offenses ordinarily do, and ought to, closely track the judgments of common-sense
morality: Insider trading should be criminalized because it instantiates the underlying
moral wrong of cheating. Receiving or soliciting a bribe should be criminalized because it
instantiates the moral wrong of disloyalty. The essay challenges Green's picture of the
actual or desirable moral structure of white-collar crime. A satisfactory full account of
the moral structure of white-collar criminal law should be more sensitive than is Green's
provocative and sophisticated theory to the respects in which the law departs from
morality to accommodate its different needs and constraints.
Crimes of the Powerful: redefining white-collar crime?
Abstract: By re-defining white collar crime as "crimes of the powerful" Frank
Pearce provided a much needed change in focus. Pearce's formulation, among other things,
culled from the white collar crime package those powerless individuals, like the bank
clerk who embezzles, from the powerful corporate managers and owners. Furthermore, it made
power a central feature of studies of white collar crime.
Identifying the Links Between
White-Collar Crime and Terrorism
John Kane; April Wall - Corporate Author: National White Collar Crime Center
Annotation: Using a case study of the investigation and prosecution of members of a
terrorist group (Jamaat Ul Fuqra) in Colorado, this research report identifies the types
of white-collar crimes used by the group for funding mechanisms and identity deception and
suggests how lessons learned from white-collar crime investigations can provide guidance
for State and local police and prosecutors who may investigate terrorist groups.
Abstract: In August 1989, the discovery of a storage locker by the Colorado Springs police
marked the beginning of an investigation that focused on fraudulent claims for worker's
compensation, a white-collar crime that is the focus of this report. Linked to the
fraudulent worker's compensation claims were other white-collar crimes, notably
identification fraud, money laundering, and tax evasion. Proceeds from these crimes were
used to plan violent terrorist acts.
White-Collar Crime Victims and the Issue of Trust
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study exploring relationships of trust and
distrust between the offender, the victims, regulators and the wider financial system in a
particular case of white-collar crime. Individuals whose pension fund assets were
defrauded by Robert Maxwell were interviewed in order to examine the consequences of
financial crime and mismanagement upon the construction of trust towards financial
investment. Results reveal that individuals manage the risks posed by financial crime and
mismanagement through complex, yet routine, perceptions of trust and distrust, which may
be profoundly influenced by an experience of victimisation.
This paper emanates from empirical research on 'white-collar victimisation', which was
conducted between 1995 and 1998. In-depth interviews were carried out with twenty-five
victims of a financial crime. This work builds upon previous research in white-collar
crime, which has examined the consequences of white-collar offences upon trust towards
social, political and economic institutions (Sutherland, 1949; Peters & Welch, 1980;
Moore & Mills, 1990; Shover et al. 1994).
After Enron will Whiter than White Collar Crime Still Wash?
Professor of Socio-Legal Studies, Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford,
The British Journal of Criminology 46:1091-1109 (2006)
In thinking about white-collar crime, it is not just crime that becomes problematic but
compliance, particularly the practice of creative compliance. This article
asks, in the post-Enron era, can creative compliance by business still claim to be
whiter than white collar crime?
WHITE COLLAR CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
Reflections on Michael, Martha, and Milberg Weiss
J. Kelly Strader
ABSTRACT: We are deeply conflicted about white collar crime and punishment. This conflict
is largely born of the governments use of novel, gray-area legal
theories in many high profile white collar prosecutions. Such prosecutions undermine the
integrity and expressive function of our system of white collar criminalization. These
prosecutions also may violate the defendants right to fair notice of the possible
crimes with which they may be charged.
White-Collar Crime and the Study of Embezzlement
GARY S. GREEN
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 525, No. 1,
The term "white-collar crime" has come to mean many things since Edwin
Sutherland coined it more than fifty years ago. Many scholars, including Sutherland
himself, referred to embezzlement as a white-collar crime. Upon close examination,
however, this theft-after-trust offense is probably not a white-collar one in the original
sense of the term. This article addresses the problems of data interpretation and
behavioral explanation in the study of trust violation, especially in light of scholars'
focus on it as a white-collar offense.
Intellectual property and
white-collar crime: Report of issues, trends, and problems for future research
Kane, John, Beresford, Annette D., Desilets, Christian, Haantz, Sandra, Wall, April
Article Abstract: A research examines the association between intellectual property (IP)
and white-collar crime (WCC), and identifies future research that might benefit
policymaker, federal, state, and local agencies, along with the general public.
Studying and Teaching White-Collar Crime: Populist and Patrician Perspectives
Authors: Shover, Neal; Cullen, Francis
Source: Journal of Criminal Justice Education, Volume 19, Number 2, July 2008
Abstract: White-collar crime is both an integral part of undergraduate criminology courses
and textbooks and the subject of enduring analytic controversy. Much of the latter can be
traced to two conflicting but unrecognized conceptual paradigms employed by investigators
and teachers when they examine white-collar crime: Populist and Patrician. These
perspectives differ in definitional approach to the concept, explicit recognition of the
criminality of offenses committed by respectable citizens, how much attention is paid to
the victims and costs of white-collar crime, the analytic centrality of criminalization,
and the variables and dynamics that purportedly explain variation in offending. Explicit
acknowledgment and pedagogical use of conflicting paradigms hold the potential to enhance
students' ability to think critically about white-collar crime.
Some Personality Correlates of Business White-Collar Crime.
Applied Psychology. 55(2):220-233, April 2006.
Blickle, Gerhard; Schlegel, Alexander; Fassbender, Pantaleon; Klein, Uwe
In this paper the results of the first cross-sectional study in Europe examining
personality correlates of white-collar crime in business are presented. This study is an
extension of ( Collins and Schmidt's 1993) research on white-collar crime in the United
States. The data were obtained from 150 managers currently active in German corporations
and 76 white-collar criminals who formerly held such positions. Participants filled out
paper and pencil scales measuring hedonism (Schwartz Value Scale), conscientiousness
(NEO-FFI), narcissism (DSM-III-R), social desirability ( Crowne & Marlowe, 1960), and
behavioral self-control. Business white-collar crime is predicted by gender (males higher
rates than females), low behavioral self-control, high hedonism, high narcissism, and high
conscientiousness after statistically controlling for social desirability. The results
concerning conscientiousness, however, contradict the interpretation of findings reported
by ( Collins and Schmidt 1993). It is argued here that high-ranking white-collar criminals
in business combine low integrity with high conscientiousness.
The Neglected Victims and Unexamined Costs of White-Collar Crime
Elizabeth Moore, Michael Mills - Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 36, No. 3, 408-418 (1990)
In recent years research has documented the victim costs of criminal acts, and a victims'
movement has produced federal and state programs to alleviate some of these costs.
Although no one disputes that aggregate fiscal costs of white-collar crime dwarf
comparable losses from street crime, victimization researchers and the victims' movement
have ignored entirely the victims of white-collar crime. This legacy of neglect can be
attributed to conservative domination of the victims' agenda and the ambiguous moral
character of white-collar victims. This article distinguishes primary and secondary costs
of white-collar crime and calls for more research to describe and document them.
Globalization and the Federal Prosecution of White Collar Crime
Ellen S. Podgor - Stetson University College of Law - American Criminal Law Review, Vol.
34, No. 2 (1997).
Abstract: This essay specifically focuses on the international flavor developing in the
prosecution of white collar crime. It discusses statutes with clear legislative language
indicating extraterritoriality through either a direct international focus (Foreign
Corrupt Practices Act), or through the specific incorporation of an extraterritorial
provision in the statute. The essay next addresses judicial interpretation of white collar
statutes where there has been no explicit reference to extraterritoriality in the statute.
Jurisdiction bases in international law also are considered in the essay. The essay offers
a sampling of the jurisdiction questions that have arisen as a result of white collar
criminal activity exceeding the borders of the United States.
Knocking The Starch Out Of White Collar Crime
Overview: White-collar crime tugs at the bottom line of every company, from mid-sized
restaurants and lumberyards to Fortune 100 firms. The cost is staggering, with the average
organization losing 6 percent of its annual revenues to employee fraud. The major
embezzlers often are high-ranking executives. The top guys are most trusted because of
their position therefore there are fewer checks and balances. People arent going to
question their activities because, well, theyre the boss. To know more on how white
collar employees commit crimes read on the article.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF WHITE-COLLAR CRIME FOR A GENERAL THEORY OF CRIME
TRAVIS HIRSCHI, MICHAEL GOTTFREDSON, University of Arizona
ABSTRACT: Advocates of the concept of white-collar crime have failed to make the case for
its scientific value. Steffensmeier's efforts to save the concept further support our view
that it is flawed and misleading. His efforts support our contention that the correlates
of white-collar crime are the same as the correlates of crime, that the age distribution
of offending is the same for white-collar crimes as for other crimes, that official
statistics have sufficient validity for many etiological purposes, and that the search for
a general theory of crime holds great promise for criminology.
On the Relationship between White-Collar Crime and Political Sociology: A
Suggestion and Resource for Teaching.
Gerber, Jurg; Fritsch, Eric J. - Teaching Sociology, v21 n2 p130-39 Apr 1993
Abstract: A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource.
Describes a college-level student research project on white-collar crime and its
relationship to political sociology. Provides suggestions for adapting the activity to
other classrooms. Includes recommended resources that can be found in most college
Trafficking in Human Organs:
An Emerging Form of White-Collar Crime?
Thomas W. Foster, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University at Mansfield
The article inquires into the global scarcity of transplantable organs and explores the
typical circumstances that surround the sale-for profit-of organs.