Conflict theory by Karl Marx is a theory that society is in a state of perpetual conflict because of competition for limited resources. Conflict theory holds that social order is maintained by domination and power, rather than consensus and conformity. According to conflict theory, those with wealth and power try to hold on to it by any means possible, by suppressing the poor and powerless. A basic premise of conflict theory is that individuals and groups within society will work to maximize their own benefits. Conflict theory has been used to explain a range of social phenomena, including wars, revolutions, poverty, discrimination, and domestic violence.
Karl Marx viewed capitalism as part of a historical progression of economic systems. He believed capitalism was rooted in commodities, or things that are purchased and sold. For example, he believed that labor is a type of commodity. Because laborers have little control or power in the economic system as they don’t own factories or materials, and their worth can be devalued over time. This can create an imbalance between business owners and their workers, eventually leading to social conflicts. Karl Marx believed these problems would eventually be fixed through a social and economic revolution.
Distribution within society was predicted to be
maintained through ideological coercion, and the bourgeoisie would force
acceptance of the current conditions by the proletariat. Conflict theory assumes
that the elite will set up systems of laws, traditions, and other societal
structures in order to further support their own dominance so that others don't
join their ranks. Karl Marx theorized that, as the working class and poor were
subjected to worsening conditions, a collective consciousness would raise more
awareness about inequality, and this would potentially result in revolt. If
conditions were adjusted to favor the concerns of the proletariat, the conflict
circle would eventually repeat but in the opposite direction. The bourgeoise
would eventually become the aggressor and revolter, craving for the return of
the structures that formerly maintained their dominance. In the current conflict
theory, there are four primary assumptions which are helpful to understand,
which are competition, revolution, structural inequality, and war.
Max Weber, a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist, adopted many aspects of Marx's conflict theory, and later, further refined some of Karl Marx's idea. Weber believed that conflict over property was not limited to one specific scenario. Rather, he believed that there were multiple layers of conflict existing at any given moment and in every society. Whereas Marx framed his view of conflict as one between owners and workers, Weber also added an emotional component to his ideas about conflict. Weber said: "It is these that underlie the power of religion and make it an important ally of the state; that transform classes into status groups, and do the same to territorial communities under particular circumstances...and that make 'legitimacy' a crucial focus for efforts at domination."
Max Weber's beliefs about conflict extend beyond Karl Marx's because they suggest that some forms of social interaction, including conflict, generate beliefs and solidarity between individuals and groups within a society. In this way, an individual's reactions to inequality might be different depending on the groups with which they are associated; whether they perceive those in power to be legitimate; and so on.
Conflict theorists of the later 20th and 21st centuries have continued to extend conflict theory beyond the strict economic classes posited by Marx, although economic relations remain a core feature of the inequalities across groups in the various branches of conflict theory. Conflict theory is highly influential in modern and post-modern theories of sexual and racial inequality, peace and conflict studies, and the many varieties of identity studies that have arisen across Western academia in the past several decades.
Conflict theorists point to the financial crisis of 2008 and the subsequent bank bailouts as good examples of real-life conflict theory, according to authors Alan Sears and James Cairns in their book A Good Book, in Theory. They view the financial crisis as the inevitable outcome of the inequalities and instabilities of the global economic system, which enables the largest banks and institutions to avoid government oversight and take huge risks that only reward a select few.
Sears and Cairns note that large banks and big businesses subsequently received bailout funds from the same governments that claimed to have insufficient funds for large-scale social programs such as universal health care. This dichotomy supports a fundamental assumption of conflict theory, which is that mainstream political institutions and cultural practices favor dominant groups and individuals.
This example illustrates that conflict can be inherent in all types of relationships, including those that don't appear on the surface to be antagonistic. It also shows that even a straightforward scenario can lead to multiple layers of conflict.