Values are relatively general cultural prescriptions of what is right, moral and desirable. Values provide the broad foundations for specific normative regulation of social interaction. Personal values are based on the influence of external world and can change over time. Personal values are related to choice and are generally influenced by groups or systems, such as culture or religion.
Self and Values - An
Interactivist Foundation for Moral Development
Robert L. Campbell, Clemson University, John Chambers Christopher, Montana State University, Mark H. Bickhard, Lehigh University - Theory & Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 6, 795-823 (2002). The standard research programs in moral development have been criticized for adopting a narrow and restrictive view of the moral domain.
There has been a dearth of alternative theories that account for the diversity of mature moral viewpoints both within and outside Western culture. We present an interactivist framework that takes into account the plurality of moral perspectives. It does so by addressing fundamental issues of psychological ontology and providing an account of values and the self based on the interactivist conception of knowledge and the knowing-levels treatment of consciousness and developmental stages. We discuss foundational questions such as the nature of the self, how it develops and the relationship between the self and values or morals, with special attention to the nature and source of value conflicts.
The Measurement of Values
Shigehiro Oishi, Uhich Schimmack, Ed Diener, Eunkook M. Suh, University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 11, 1177-1189 (1998)
This study presents alternative measures of S. H. Schwartz's theory of values using pairwise comparisons and goal concepts. Not only did the three measures of values-the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), the Pairwise Comparison Value Survey (PCVS), and the Personal Striving Value Survey (PSVS) -converge but they were also correlated in similar ways with the Individualism-Collectivism Scale (ICS). This provides evidence that the newly developed scales can be alternatives to the SVS, which allows future studies of values using multiple measures. Moreover, the findings provide support for Schwartz's conception of values as higher order goals. The present findings have several implications for the study of values and their linkage to the study of individualism-collectivism and the self-concept.