Sociology Index

URBANISM

Books on Urban Sociology, Urban Sociology

As in the notion of modernity, urbanism refers to the form of social organization and values typically found in large urban settings. The values in urbanism are those of individualism and impersonality and the major characteristics of social organization are a developed division of labor, high rates of geographic and social mobility and predominance of impersonality in social interaction despite the acute social interdependence.

Alfred Agache, French Sociology, and Modern Urbanism in France and Brazil - David K. Underwood, The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 50, No. 2 (Jun., 1991)

Abstract: The 1930 master plan for Rio de Janeiro, drawn up by the French architect-urbanist Alfred Agache, had an important impact on Rio and on the development of modern planning in Brazil.

Reflecting the socioscientific methods of Edmond Demolins and the Musee Social in Paris as well as the sociological ideas of Gabriel Tarde and Emile Durkheim, the plan exemplifies the ambitions and techniques of the urbanism of the Societe Francaise d'Urbanistes (SFU).

Agache, a leading theorist, teacher, and practitioner of SFU urbanism, developed a sociological urbanisme parlant that evolved out of his Beaux-Arts training and his background in French sociology. Agache's ideas on the fine arts and urban planning were synthesized and refined in the courses on social art history and urbanism, the first of their kind in France, that he taught at the College Libre des Sciences Sociales in Paris.

New Agendas for Social Policy and Criminology: Globalization, Urbanism and the Emerging Post-Social Security State, Tony Fitzpatrick, School of Sociology and Social Policy, Nottingham
Abstract: The subjects of social policy and criminology have long been concerned with the criminalization and regulation of the poor.

The Role of the Family and Women Under Contemporary Urbanism
Authors: Mackenzie, Suzanne; Seymour, Lee 
This paper examines how selected aspects of contemporary urban environment influence the form and function of the family and the position of women within the family and within society. The study was undertaken within the framework of Marxian analysis and with a specific focus on how advanced industrial capitalism perpetuates the family in its present form. Review of socialization, historical, and political-economics literature indicates that, in addition to these historical influences, several other phenomena have contributed to the position of the family and of women in modern urban societies. Among these phenomena are sprawling urban housing patterns (which encourage individualized and spatially isolated family units and artificial stimulation of consumption), the perpetuation of this isolated family function in accordance with the long term nature of housing resources, and capitalism's inherent necessity for growth in the form of more consumption units structured along these same lines. Additional research is suggested on the role of women in the family under capitalism in the contemporary urban environment.

Street culture - The dialectic of urbanism in Walter Benjamin’s Passagen-werk 
Joseph D. Lewandowski, Department of Philosophy, Central Missouri State University,
Philosophy & Social Criticism, Vol. 31, No. 3, 293-308 (2005)
This article develops a sociological reading of Walter Benjamin’s ‘Arcades Project’, or Passagen-werk. Specifically, the essay seeks to make explicit Benjamin’s non-dualistic account of structure and agency in the urban milieu. I characterize this account as the ‘dialectic of urbanism’, and argue that one of the central insights of Benjamin’s Passagen-werk is that it locates an emergent and innovative cultural form - a distinctive ‘street culture’ or jointly shared way of modern urban life - within haussmannizing techniques of architectural administration and spatial domination. In the modern metropolis, Benjamin sees a new kind of collective - an embedded and effervescent sociocultural group held together not by the functionalist imperatives of capitalist urban planning but by an improvisational mode of street life.

Urbanism, Race, and Crime 
John H. Laub, College of Criminal Justice, Northeastern University Boston, Massachusetts 
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 20, No. 2, (1983)
There is general agreement that urbanism is an important correlate of criminality. However, the interpretation of the relation is a matter of theoretical dispute. The most common argument is that there is a confounding effect between urbanism and race. This paper uses National Crime Survey data to test the compositional argument. The findings imply a reconsideration of the accepted relationship between urbanism and crime generally portrayed in the criminological literature.

Type of Place, Urbanism, and Delinquency: Further Testing the Determinist Theory 
A. LEIGH INGRAM 
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 30, No. 2, (1993) � 1993 SAGE Publications
This research examines the relationship between type of place and juvenile delinquency in an effort to extend knowledge about determinism or the "determinist" theory. This theory predicts a positive relationship between type of place and delinquency, and that relationship will be mediated by "urbanism," the negative consequences of exposure to urban environments. The theory is tested using two measures of type of place, six measures of urbanism, and three delinquency indexes. The results provide little support for the determinist theory. Delinquency does not predict urbanness, and urbanness does not predict urbanism. Urbanism does, however, prove to be a significant predictor of delinquency.

Society, State, and Urbanism: Ibn Khaldun's Sociological Thought by Fuad Baali 
Review: Christopher Prendergast, Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Jul., 1989)

Tokyo Urbanism (Anthropology 470)
Instructor: David Slater
Course Description: The city has been at the center of much of the most important developments in the social science (including modernization, urbanization, class and race relations), and today it is once again at the forefront of social theory (see postmodernism, transnationalism, identity politics and social geography). By the same token, the city in general and Tokyo in particular, has been a very important feature in modern Japanese history.