Sociology Index

TRANSSEXUAL

Transvestitism, Berdache or two spirits, Amazon

Transsexual is an individual who has physically crossed the boundary between the sexes and thus becomes the other sex. While movement may be in either direction, more transsexuals are men who have become women. Western cultures have been criticized frequently for being extremely dualistic in gender or sexual identities, making little room, or no room, for a third or fourth sex. Hinduism by contrast has an elaborate repertoire of sexual transformations, bisexuality and sexual expression. The term transgender is now preferred since it clearly suggests that sexual categories are themselves social constructions.

Transsexuality is also termed 'Gender Dysphoria'. Gender Dysphoria, literally a misery with regard to gender, is the condition of being in a state of conflict between gender and physical sex. -transsexual.org.
A transsexual is a person in which the sex-related structures of the brain that define gender identity are exactly opposite the physical sex organs of the body. Put even more simply, a transsexual is a mind that is literally, physically, trapped in a body of the opposite sex.

Transsexuality means having the wrong body for the gender one really is.
A transsexual person, born to all appearance within a given physical sex, is aware of being of a gender opposite to that physical sex. This conflict, between gender identity and physical sex, is almost always manifest from earliest awareness, and is the cause of enormous suffering. It is common for transsexuals to be aware of their condition at preschool ages. It is apparent that some fifty percent of transsexuals die by age 30, usually by their own hand.

The transsexual dilemma: being a transsexual - N Mason 
Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol 6, Issue 2 85-89.
With few exceptions, a solution to any problem will bring new difficulties. Is the new situation really going to be better than the last? This is undoubtedly the situation with the transsexual. It is undeniable that in the majority of cases the treated transsexual is an infinitely happier person than the one who has not undergone therapy, but as a result of this treatment there arises a host of new difficulties. It is my intention to illustrate the problems which beset the transsexual before, during and after treatment.

Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents - R Green 
American Psychiatric Association 1978; 135:692-697 
The author reports on 37 children who are being raised by female homosexuals or by parents who have changed sex (transsexuals): 21 by female homosexuals, 7 by male-to-female transsexuals, and 9 by female- to-male transsexuals.

The Veiled Muslim, the Anorexic and the Transsexual - What Do They Have in Common? - Randi Gressgard, University of Stavanger - European Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 13, No. 4, 325-341 (2006)
On the one hand, woman is expected to be liberated, in control and active in public life and in all ways just as free as the man, on the other she represents a deficiency compared to the man; it is expected of her that she takes up a complementary, subordinate position in relation to the man. Officially, the gender hierarchy is not a part of egalitarian societies, that is, the modern configuration that formally rejects a hierarchical worldview. Is this the reason why the three figures are regarded as pathological?

Transsexual surgery. A new tort? - M. M. Belli 
Transsexual surgery became a modern reality 25 years ago when Christine Jorgenson's sex reversal shocked the world. Since that time, transsexuality has become both dilemma and controversy in medicine, psychiatry, and law. Transsexuality emerged into an interdisciplinary void. Today both scientists and courts are being asked to fill that void with answers. I have explored the legal aspects of transsexual surgery, both ancient common-law precedents and current developments, and possible answers to the sex change dilemma.

On the pragmatics of an androgynous style of speaking (from a transsexual's perspective). C. Todd White1Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, The University of Nevada.
Abstract: Since the publication of Robin Lakoff's Language and Woman's Place (1975), much has been written regarding the distinct language styles employed by men and women in Western culture. Following the lead of psychologist Sandra Bem, Jennifer Coates has suggested that a speaker who shifts between masculine and feminine styles of speaking will have certain advantages in today's society, especially in the work environment. This paper considers the pragmatics of style-shifting as related to the experiences of Marty Gomez, a male-to-female transsexual who has met with limited success in passing as female under intense public scrutiny.

Transsexual and Transgenderist Experiences and Treatment Options 
Kelly M. Ellis, Manassas Park Middle School, Karen Eriksen, Radford University 
When transgender individuals struggle with living as the other gender, their families also struggle. Often, however, these individuals, their families, and their counselors have difficulty finding information about the transgender experience to help them with their struggles. Because little professional literature exists on such experiences, this article provides information about treatment options for transsexuals, transgenderists, and those with gender dysphoria.

The Three Sisters: Transsexual Male Siblings 
ROBERT F. SABALIS PH.D., ALLEN FRANCES M.D., SUSAN N. APPENZELLER M.S.W, and WILLIE B. MOSELEY M.D.
This paper presents case material on three male siblings with a transsexual syndrome. It is probably the first such case recorded in the United States and may lead to the discovery of other such sibships, which could be of particular value in assessing the validity of some of the literature concerning the etiology of this disorder.

A TRANSSEXUAL'S NIGHTMARE: THE DETERMINATION OF SEXUAL IDENTITY IN ENGLISH LAW - JEROLD TAITZ - International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 1988 2(2):139-154;
Transsexualism or the Gender Dysphoria Syndrome is a psychological disorder recognized by the medical profession. Transsexuals are normal biological males or females who believe that they are members of their opposite sex ‘trapped in the wrong body’. The disorder manifests itself in various neurotic or psychotic forms, leading even to suicide in extreme cases. Most medical specialists believe that the only relief for transsexuals is to bring their bodies into alignment with their psychological sex.