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Transnational Corporation is also called a Multinational Corporation. Transnational Corporation operates in more than one country at a time. Transnational Corporations are multinational corporations whose sales and production are carried out in many different nations. As a result of their multinational reach these transnational corporations are often thought to be beyond the political control of any individual nation state. There has been widespread agreement that transnational corporations constrained the exercise of state power in the Third World.
Transnational Corporations are now analogised to individuals competing in the marketplace. Multinational Corporations can be Conglomerates, and belong to the McWorld. It is clear first that the sharing of equity is a long way from the sharing of control in joint ventures with transnational corporations. Any assessment of the balance of bargaining power between states and transnational corporations must take account of the dynamics of change within each of the major protagonists. A new orthodoxy has emerged which suggests that the transnational corporation rather than national sovereignty is increasingly 'at bay'.
The balance of bargaining power between host-countries and transnational corporations has not shifted either as far or as quickly as most of the advocates of the 'resurgence of the state' literature maintain. - The Illusion of State Power: Transnational Corporations and the Neutralization of Host-Country Legislation - Thomas J. Biersteker, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 17, No. 3.
Transnational Corporations and Repression of Political Rights and Civil Liberties: An Empirical Analysis - MATTHIAS BUSSE, HWWI - Abstract: Transnational Corporations are often accused by non-governmental organisations of ignoring fundamental democratic rights, such as civil liberties and political rights, in the countries of their investments.
Controlling Transnational Corporations: The Role of Governmental
Entities and Grassroots Organizations in Combating
White-Collar Crime - Jurg
Gerber, Eric L. Jensen.
Controlling transnational corporations is problematic because of the absence of powerful international regulations and inconsistent national legislation. Transnational corporations that conduct business in several countries can therefore often engage in corporate behavior that are illegal in one country but not in others. However, efforts to control these transnational corporations are undertaken in spite of such difficulties.
Corporations - Power, Influence and Responsibility -
Sorcha Macleod, Douglas Lewis.
In terms of the New World Order, the largest Transnational Corporations are central players. Transnational Corporations influence the destinies of individual economies in the developing world. Any constitutional architect who does not attempt to set a framework of accountability and global citizenship for the Transnational Corporations would demean their craft. How do we orchestrate the healthy influence of Transnational Corporations in terms of economic growth and opportunity with the necessity of their conforming to the underlying values of the world community? More and more detailed information is becoming available on the influential activities of Transnational Corporations but as yet there appears to be no game plan for where they fit in to canons of global responsibility.
Transnational firms and the changing organisation of innovative activities - A Zanfei.
Abstract: It is suggested that a transition is taking place towards new modes of organising transnational corporations' innovative activities. First, different units of multinational firms, including foreign-based subsidiaries, are increasingly involved in the generation, use and transmission of knowledge. Secondly, multinationals are developing external networks of relationships with local counterparts, through which foreign affiliates gain access to external knowledge sources and application abilities.
Transnational Corporations and Global Citizenship - HAZEL
Abstract: Transnational corporations are major global actors, many larger than most nation states. The evolution of their organizational structures and of relevant national and international law is reviewed briefly.
Transnational Corporations, Competition and Monopoly - Rhys Jenkins, University of E. Anglia, Norwich.
The paper argues that much of the literature on the impact of Transnational Corporations on the Third World is located at the level of circulation. Making use of the recent critical literature on monopoly and competition, it is argued that surplus profits earned by Transnational Corporations in Third World countries are not primarily the result of market power, but derive from their ability to enter markets in which very favorable demand conditions exist and from their productivity advantages with respect to local firms.
A New Transnational Corporate Social Structure of Accumulation for Long-Wave
Upswing in the World Economy? - Phillip Anthony O’Hara.
Abstract: This article examines whether a new transnational corporate
social structure of
accumulation (SSA) has emerged in the global economy to promote long-wave upswing. It
explores the main tendencies of the transnational corporate system; three main engines of
potential growth; and the evidence of profitability, accumulation, productivity, and
growth. A new transnational
corporate SSA does not seem to be operating, and long-wave upswing is not evident for the
global corporate economy.
The Power of Rights: Imposing Human Rights Duties on Transnational Corporations for Environmental Harms - AMY SINDEN, Temple University - James E. Beasley School of Law.
THE NEW CORPORATE
ACCOUNTABILITY: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE LAW - Doreen McBarnet,
Aurora Voiculescu, & Tom Campbell, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2007. Abstract: This essay attempts to construct a normative justification for the
imposition of human rights duties on transnational corporations that commit environmental wrongs
in the developing world.
The extent to which the normative
justifications for civil and political human rights have traditionally been rooted in a
perceived need to counteract the imbalance of power between the individual and the state,
it becomes clear that it is frequently far more appropriate to treat Transnational
Corporations as like states than like individuals. Many
Transnational Corporations wield more power and resources than many states.
duties should be imposed directly on Transnational Corporations for environmental harms.
Transnational corporations and the geographical transfer of localised technology: a multi-industry study of foreign affiliates in Sweden - Inge Ivarsson, Department of Human and Economic Geography, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Sweden.
Abstract: Based on unique firm-level data from 323 majority-owned foreign affiliates located in West Sweden in the beginning of 2000, we show that foreign-located affiliates of transnational corporations generate technological competencies, both internally as well as through organised cooperation with external business partners in the host country. Not only the technological competence of majority-owned foreign affiliates themselves, but even the geographical context in which they are embedded is a relational asset that is crucial for the overall technological competitiveness of Transnational Corporations. However, technological linkages between foreign Transnational Corporations and host country partners does not come automatically, instead they need substantial and long-term investments in personal and non-personal resources.
Transnational Corporations and the Global Food System - McLaughlin, Martin M - Center of Concern.
Abstract: This chapter from the book World Food Security describes in very accessible terms the structure and behavior of the global food system, likening it to a corporate cartel dominated by a handful of powerful food companies.
US-Based Transnational Corporations and Emerging Markets - Nitzan, Jonathan. (1996). Emerging Markets Analyst. Vol. 5. No. 3. July.
Abstract or Brief Description: Transnational corporations are accounting for a growing share of global economic activity and their dependence on emerging markets is rapidly rising. For US-based Transnational Corporations, the attraction of emerging markets stems from superior economic growth, higher rates of return and, most importantly, from the prospects of expanding market share.
Transnational Corporations and Education: Current Issues and Prospects - Cieslik, Jerzy.
Abstract: Discusses how transnational corporations might contribute to various forms of education in developing countries and describes measures states should take to encourage their receiving benefits.
Human rights and transnational corporations: the way forward High Commissioners Report: A speaker summarised the report of the Commissioner of Human Rights on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and related business enterprises with regard to human rights. The report reviewed existing initiatives and standards and compared their scope and legal status, in particular the ILO Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the United Nations Global Compact, and the draft Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with regard to Human Rights.
Human rights codes for transnational corporations: what can the Sullivan and MacBride principles tell us?
McCrudden, C (1999) Human rights codes for transnational corporations: what can the Sullivan and MacBride principles tell us? Abstract: The development of codes of conduct for transnational corporations is considered, particularly those involving human and labour rights. The issue of compliance with such codes is examined through a detailed consideration of the development and operation of the Sullivan and MacBride Principles. The origin, evolution, and effects of these Principles is considered. Particular attention is paid to institutional and other features surrounding their enforcement, including the use of selective purchasing, shareholder activism, and linkage to government financial incentives.
HOPE-HELIUM: GLOBAL SOCIAL CHANGE AND RATIONALE OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS PARTNERSHIP WITH COMMUNITY FOUNDATIONS - SVETLANA V. POUCHKAREVA. Abstract: With the purpose of generating a discussion over the rationale of transnational corporations partnership with community foundations, the scholar explores a blend of theories from political, business and social studies and matches them with the data received from community foundations and the partner transnational corporations in seven countries. The study approaches concepts of global social change and social capital affecting transnational corporations and suggests that community foundations, due to their features of glocality and epistemics, assist transnational corporations to strategically align their business needs with the demands of their multiple communities, maximise their competitive advantages.