Corporations whose sales and
production are carried out in many different nations. As a result of their multinational
reach these transnational corporations are often thought to be beyond the political
control of any individual nation state.
There has been widespread
agreement that transnational corporations constrained the exercise of state power in the
Third World. During the 1970s there have been increasing challenges to this idea.
A new orthodoxy has emerged
which suggests that the transnational corporation rather than national sovereignty is
increasingly 'at bay'. The research described in this article examined the responses
of transnational corporations to Nigeria's increasingly stringent indigenization policies
during the 1970s. Transnational corporations have developed a range of defensive
strategies which effectively neutralize the Nigerian policy.
It is clear first that the
sharing of equity is a long way from the sharing of control in joint ventures with
transnational corporations. Any assessment of the balance of bargaining power between
states and transnational corporations must take account of the dynamics of change within
each of the major protagonists.
Changes have taken place in the
relationship between states and transnational corporations during the 1970s. However, most
observers have ignored the defensive responses and capabilities of transnational
corporations. The balance of bargaining power between host-countries and transnational
corporations has not shifted either as far or as quickly as most of the advocates of the
'resurgence of the state' literature maintain. - The Illusion of State Power:
Transnational Corporations and the Neutralization of Host-Country Legislation -
Thomas J. Biersteker, Yale University and the International Peace Research Institute,
Oslo - Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 17, No. 3
Corporations - Power, Influence and Responsibility
Sorcha Macleod, Douglas Lewis, University of Sheffield, UK
Global Social Policy, Vol. 4, No. 1, 77-98 (2004)
In terms of the New World Order, the largest Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are central
players. They influence the policies of governments worldwide. Transnational Corporations
influence the destinies of individual economies in the developing world. Any
constitutional architect who does not attempt to set a framework of accountability and
global citizenship for the Transnational Corporations would demean their craft. How do we
orchestrate the healthy influence of Transnational Corporations in terms of economic
growth and opportunity with the necessity of their conforming to the underlying values of
the world community? Can we legislate for corporate responsibility and if so, how? If not,
what alternatives are available? This article will explore the values and mechanisms for
ensuring that the corporate world is in tune with the expectations of cosmopolitan
democracy. More and more detailed information is becoming available on the influential
activities of Transnational Corporations but as yet there appears to be no game plan for
where they fit in to canons of global responsibility.
Transnational Corporations and Repression of Political Rights and Civil Liberties:
An Empirical Analysis - MATTHIAS BUSSE, HWWI - Hamburg Institute of
International Economics - Kyklos, Vol. 57, pp. 45-65, February 2004
Abstract: Transnational Corporations are often accused by non-governmental organisations
of ignoring fundamental democratic rights, such as civil liberties and political rights,
in the countries of their investments.
Transnational firms and the changing organisation of innovative activities
A Zanfei, UniversitÓ di Urbino, Ise-FacoltÓ di Economia, Via Saffi 2, 61029 Urbino,
Abstract: It is suggested that a transition is taking place towards new modes of
organising transnational corporations' innovative activities. First, different units of
multinational firms, including foreign-based subsidiaries, are increasingly involved in
the generation, use and transmission of knowledge. Secondly, multinationals are developing
external networks of relationships with local counterparts, through which foreign
affiliates gain access to external knowledge sources and application abilities.
Controlling Transnational Corporations: The Role of Governmental Entities and
Grassroots Organizations in Combating White-Collar Crime - Jurg Gerber,
College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville
Eric L. Jensen, Department of Sociology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-1110,
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Vol. 44, No. 6,
Controlling transnational corporations is problematic because of the absence of powerful
international regulations and inconsistent national legislation. Transnational
corporations that conduct business in several countries can therefore often engage in
corporate behaviors that are illegal in one country but not in others. However, efforts to
control these transnational corporations are undertaken in spite of such difficulties.
Transnational Corporations and Global Citizenship - HAZEL
American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 43, No. 8, 1231-1261 (2000)
Abstract: Transnational corporations are major global actors, many larger than most nation
states. The evolution of their organizational structures and of relevant national and
international law is reviewed briefly.
Transnational Corporations, Competition and Monopoly - Rhys Jenkins,
University of E. Anglia, Norwich.
Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 21, No. 4, 12-32 (1989)
The paper argues that much of the literature on the impact of Transnational Corporations
on the Third World is located at the level of circulation. Making use of the recent
critical literature on monopoly and competition, it is argued that surplus profits earned
by Transnational Corporations in Third World countries are not primarily the result of
market power, but derive from their ability to enter markets in which very favorable
demand conditions exist and from their productivity advantages with respect to local
A New Transnational Corporate Social Structure of Accumulation for Long-Wave
Upswing in the World Economy? - Phillip Anthony OHara, Global
Political Economy Research Unit, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 36, No. 3, 328-335 (2004)
Abstract: This article examines whether a new transnational corporate social structure of
accumulation (SSA) has emerged in the global economy to promote long-wave upswing. It
explores the main tendencies of the transnational corporate system; three main engines of
potential growth; and the evidence of profitability, accumulation, productivity, and
growth. Then the dominant contradictions are surveyed. Overall, a new transnational
corporate SSA does not seem to be operating, and long-wave upswing is not evident for the
global corporate economy.
The Power of Rights: Imposing Human Rights Duties on Transnational Corporations
for Environmental Harms - AMY SINDEN, Temple University - James E. Beasley
School of Law
THE NEW CORPORATE
ACCOUNTABILITY: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE LAW, Doreen McBarnet,
Aurora Voiculescu, & Tom Campbell, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2007
Abstract: This essay attempts to construct a normative justification for the imposition of
human rights duties on transnational corporations (TNCs) that commit environmental wrongs
in the developing world. Under the now near-hegemonic worldview of welfare economics,
Transnational Corporations are analogised to individuals competing in the marketplace and
thus placed squarely on the private side of the public/private divide. If we step outside
of the economic worldview, however, and recognise the extent to which the normative
justifications for civil and political human rights have traditionally been rooted in a
perceived need to counteract the imbalance of power between the individual and the state,
it becomes clear that it is frequently far more appropriate to treat Transnational
Corporations as like states than like individuals. Many
Transnational Corporations, after all, wield more power and resources than many states.
Accordingly, at least where one of two sets of factual circumstances exist, human rights
duties should be imposed directly on Transnational Corporations for environmental harms:
1) where the state has become so weak and/or corrupt as to be non-functional, or 2) where
the Transnational Corporations has so much power and influence within the domestic
government that it essentially controls state decision-making.
Transnational corporations and the geographical transfer of localised technology:
a multi-industry study of foreign affiliates in Sweden - Inge Ivarsson,
Department of Human and Economic Geography, School of Economics and Commercial Law,
Abstract: Based on unique firm-level data from 323 majority-owned foreign affiliates
(MOFAs) located in West Sweden in the beginning of 2000, we show that foreign-located
affiliates of transnational corporations (TNCs) generate technological competencies, both
internally as well as through organised cooperation with external business partners in the
host country. This seems true not only for manufacturing affiliates, but also for
wholesale affiliates supplying industrial products, as well as professional service
affiliates providing technical services. All three categories of affiliates are engaged in
dynamic technological integration. This indicates that not only the
technological competence of MOFAs themselves, but even the geographical context in which
they are embedded is a relational asset that is crucial for the overall technological
competitiveness of Transnational Corporations. However, technological linkages
between foreign Transnational Corporations and host country partners does not come
automatically, instead they need substantial and long-term investments in personal and
Transnational Corporations and the Global Food System - McLaughlin,
Martin M - Center of Concern
Abstract: This chapter from the book World Food Security describes in very accessible
terms the structure and behavior of the global food system, likening it to a corporate
cartel dominated by a handful of powerful food companies.
US-Based Transnational Corporations and Emerging Markets
Nitzan, Jonathan. (1996). Emerging Markets Analyst. Vol. 5. No. 3. July. pp. 13-24.
(Magazine Article; English).
Abstract or Brief Description: Transnational corporations are accounting for a growing
share of global economic activity and their dependence on emerging markets is rapidly
rising. For US-based Transnational Corporations, the attraction of emerging markets stems
from superior economic growth, higher rates of return and, most importantly, from the
prospects of expanding market share.
Transnational Corporations and Education: Current Issues and Prospects -
Source: International Review of Education, v28 n4 p457-67 1982
Abstract: Discusses how transnational corporations might contribute to various forms of
education in developing countries and describes measures states should take to encourage
their receiving benefits.
Human rights and transnational corporations: the way forward
High Commissioners Report: A speaker summarised the report of the Commissioner of
Human Rights on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and related business
enterprises with regard to human rights of 15 February 2005 (E/CN.4/2005/91). The report
reviewed existing initiatives and standards and compared their scope and legal status, in
particular the ILO Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational
Enterprises and Social Policy, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the
United Nations Global Compact, and the draft Norms on the Responsibilities of
Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with regard to Human Rights
Human rights codes for transnational corporations: what can the Sullivan and
MacBride principles tell us?
McCrudden, C (1999) Human rights codes for transnational corporations: what can the
Sullivan and MacBride principles tell us?. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 19(2):pp.
Abstract: The development of codes of conduct for transnational corporations is
considered, particularly those involving human and labour rights. The issue of compliance
with such codes is examined through a detailed consideration of the development and
operation of the Sullivan and MacBride Principles. The origin, evolution, and effects of
these Principles is considered. Particular attention is paid to institutional and other
features surrounding their enforcement, including the use of selective purchasing,
shareholder activism, and linkage to government financial incentives.
HOPE-HELIUM: GLOBAL SOCIAL CHANGE AND RATIONALE OF TRANSNATIONAL
CORPORATIONS PARTNERSHIP WITH COMMUNITY FOUNDATIONS
SVETLANA V. POUCHKAREVA, UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS, INSTITUTE FOR POLITICS AND INTERNATIONAL
Abstract: With the purpose of generating a discussion over the rationale of transnational
corporations partnership with community foundations, the scholar explores a blend of
theories from political, business and social studies and matches them with the data
received from community foundations and the partner transnational corporations in seven
countries. The study approaches concepts of global social change and social capital
affecting transnational corporations and suggests that community foundations, due to their
features of glocality and epistemics, assist transnational
corporations to strategically align their business needs with the demands of their
multiple communities, maximise their competitive advantages.
Joint ventures with transnational corporations.