Sociology Index Medical Toursim


Token economy in psychiatry is the principle or practice of rewarding desirable behavior with tokens which can be exchanged for goods or privileges, and sometimes punishing undesirable behavior by withholding or withdrawing such tokens. This system of behavior modification in a token economy is based on the systematic reinforcement of target behavior.

Token economy is a behaviour therapy procedure based on operant learning principles; individuals are rewarded or reinforced for positive or appropriate behavior and are disciplined (punished) for negative or inappropriate behavior.

Living in the Classroom: The Currency-Based Token Economy - Payne, James S.; And Others. Abstract: Various types of token economies and contingency contract systems are emerging throughout private and public educational programs.

The basic idea of this book is that a token economy based on currency creates a real-life situation for children in the classroom. The goal of this book is to help the teacher establish a currency-based token economy that will make education in the classroom more relevant to the lives of children in today's society.

Chapter 1 justifies the use of a currency-based token economy in the classroom. This is followed by a chapter explaining the mechanics of such a system in the classroom.

Chapter 3 explains how to identify and acquire reinforcers that the students can purchase with currency at a minimum cost to the teacher. The next chapter outlines basic information that is needed to implement any token economy for people who are unfamiliar with the concept.

Chapter 5 describes in detail the skills needed to operate a currency-based token economy in the classroom, while the next chapter outlines the procedures for setting up and stocking the store and discusses the various responsibilities associated with it.

Effects of a token economy system within the context of cooperative games on social behaviors of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders. - Wolfe, B. D., Dattilo, J., Gast, D. L.
Therapeutic Recreation Journal, Publisher: National Recreation and Park Association
Abstract: Effects of a cooperative games and token economy programme on pro-social (statements of encouragement, statements of praise, statements of appreciation, hand shakes, or high fives) and antisocial behaviours (swearing, threatening physical harm, calling peers names, hitting or pushing) of 3 adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders from northeast Georgia, USA. With the introduction of cooperative games, behaviors remained stable and unchanged. When a token economy system was introduced there was an immediate increase in the number of pro-social behavior.