Sociology of Terrorism, Books on Sociology of Terrorism
Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)
The terrorist group was also called Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary
Brigades, Black September and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. The
terrorist group received considerable support, including safe haven, training, logistical
assistance, and financial aid from Iraq, Libya, and Syria.
The ANO international terrorist organization
was founded by Sabri al-Banna after splitting from the PLO in 1974. In November 2002 Abu
Nidal died in Baghdad.
Abu Sayyaf Group
The terrorist group ASG is primarily a small Muslim terrorist group operating in the
southern Philippines. Some ASG leaders allegedly fought in Afghanistan during the Soviet
The terrorist group split from the Moro National
Liberation Front in the early 1990s under the leadership of Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani,
who was killed in a clash with Philippine police in December 1998. The terrorist
groups goal is to promote an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao and the
Sulu Archipelago but the ASG has primarily used terror for financial profit.
The terrorist group has received support from Islamic
extremists in the Middle East and may receive support from regional terrorist groups.
Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade
The terrorist group was also called al-Aqsa Martyrs Battalion
The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade consists of an unknown number of small cells of terrorists
associated with the Palestinian Fatah organization. The terrorist group emerged at the
outset of the 2000 Palestinian intifadah to attack Israeli targets.
Armed Islamic Group (GIA)
The terrorist group is an Islamist extremist group. The terrorist group aims to overthrow
the Algerian regime and replace it with a fundamentalist Islamic state. The GIA began its
in 1992 after the military government suspended legislative elections in anticipation of
victory by the Islamic Salvation Front.
Many of the GIAs members have joined other Islamist terrorist groups or been killed
or captured by the Algerian Government. The terrorist group has members in Europe that
The terrorist group is a Lebanon-based Sunni extremist group composed primarily of
Palestinians with links to Usama Bin Ladins al-Qaida organization. The
terrorist group follows an extremist interpretation of Islam that justifies violence
against civilian targets. The terrorist groups goals include overthrowing the
Lebanese Government and thwarting pro-Western influences in the country. The terrorist
groups primary base of operations is the Ayn al-Hilwah Palestinian refugee
camp near Sidon in southern Lebanon.
The terrorist group was a cult established in 1987 by Shoko Asahara. The terrorist group
Aum aimed to take over Japan and then the world. The group ran candidates in a Japanese
parliamentary election in 1990. The cult began to emphasize the imminence of the end of
the world and that the United States would initiate Armageddon by starting World War III
with Japan. The terrorist groups principal membership is located in Japan, but a
branch comprising about 300 followers has surfaced in Russia.
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
The terrorist group was also called Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna and Batasuna. Founded in 1959
with the aim of establishing an independent homeland based on Marxist principles and
covering the Spanish Basque provinces as well as the autonomous region of Navarra and the
French Departments of Labourd, Basse-Navarra, and Soule. Spanish and French
counterterrorism initiatives since 2000 have hampered the terrorist groups
The terrorist group has received training at various times in Libya, Lebanon, and
Nicaragua. Some ETA members fled to Cuba and Mexico. ETA members have operated and been
arrested in other European countries.
Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group)
The terrorist group was also called Islamic Group and al-Gamaat, Egypts
largest militant group. It has an external wing with supporters in several countries. The
terrorist groups issuance of a cease-fire in 1997 led to a split: one, led by
Mustafa Hamza; the other, led by Rifai Taha Musa.
Taha Musa published a book in which he attempted to justify terrorist attacks. Taha Musa
disappeared several months thereafter. The terrorist group's primary goal is to overthrow
the Egyptian Government and replace it with an Islamic state. The terrorist group appears
to have support in Cairo, Alexandria, particularly among unemployed graduates and
students. Has a worldwide presence.
HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)
The terrorist group was also called Islamic Resistance Movement. HAMAS was formed in late
1987 as a Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. HAMAS elements have used both
violent and political means to pursue the goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian
state in Israel. HAMAS strength is concentrated in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
HAMAS continues to confine its attacks to Israelis inside Israel and the occupied
territories. The terrorist group limits its terrorist operations to Israeli military and
civilian targets in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel.
Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)
The terrorist group was also called Harakat ul-Ansar. HUM is an Islamist militant group
based in Pakistan that operates in Kashmir. It is aligned with the radical political party
Jamiat Ulema-i-Islams Fazlur Rehman faction. Fazlur Rehman Khalil stepped down as
HUM emir, turning the reins over to the popular Kashmiri commander to Farooqi Kashmiri.
Khalil, who has been linked to Usama Bin Ladin assumed the position of HUM Secretary
General. HUM trained its militants in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Hizballah (Party of God)
The terrorist group was also called Party of God, Islamic Jihad and Islamic Jihad for the
Liberation of Palestine. Formed in response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, this
radical Shia group takes its ideological inspiration from the Iranian revolution and late
Ayatollah Khomeini. Hizballah has actively participated in Lebanons political system
since 1992. The terrorist group has been a strong ally in helping Syria advance its
political objectives in the region.
Hizballah and HAMAS signed an agreement to increase joint efforts to perpetrate attacks
against Israel. In late 2004, Hizballahs al-Manar television station, Al-Manar was
placed on the Terrorist Exclusion List (TEL) in the United States.
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
The terrorist group Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan is a group of Islamic militants from
Uzbekistan and other Central Asian states. Closely affiliated with al-Qaida and,
under the leadership of Tohir Yoldashev, anti-US, anti-Western agenda. The IMU remains
committed to its goal of overthrowing President Karimov and establishing an Islamic state
in Uzbekistan. The IMU has participated in attacks on US and Coalition soldiers in
Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed)
The terrorist group was also called Army of Mohammed Tehrik ul-Furqaan and
Khuddam-ul-Islam. The Jaish-e-Mohammed is a group based in Pakistan that was formed in
early by Masood Azhar upon his release from prison in India. The terrorist groups
aim is to unite Kashmir with Pakistan. The JEMs leader, Masood Azhar, was released
from Indian imprisonment in December 1999 in exchange for 155 hijacked Indian Airlines
al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad)
The terrorist group which was also called Jihad Group, Egyptian Islamic Jihad and EIJ
merged with Usama Bin Ladins al-Qaida organization in 2001. Ayman al-Zawahiri
was the former head of AJ. al-Jihads primary goal has been the overthrow of the
Egyptian Government and the establishment of an Islamic state. The terrorist groups
primary targets have been high-level Egyptian Government officials as well as US and
Israeli interests. Egyptian crackdowns have greatly reduced AJ capabilities in Egypt.
Kahane Chai (Kach)
The terrorist group Kachs stated goal is to restore the biblical state of Israel.
Founded by radical Israeli-American rabbi Meir Kahane which means "Kahane
Lives". The terrorist group receives support from sympathizers in the United States
Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)
The terrorist group was also called PKK. Founded by Abdullah Ocalan in 1974 as a
Marxist-Leninist organization and formally named the Kurdistan Workers Party in
1978. The PKKs goal has been to establish an independent, democratic Kurdish state
in southeast Turkey, northern Iraq, and parts of Iran and Syria. Syria and Iran appear to
cooperate with Turkey against KGK in a limited fashion when it serves their immediate
Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous)
The terrorist group was also called Army of the Righteous, Lashkar-e-Toiba, al Monsooreen,
al-Mansoorian. LT is the armed wing of the Pakistan-based religious organization,
Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad, an anti-US Sunni organization formed in 1989. LT is led by
Hafiz Muhammad Saeed and is one of the best trained groups fighting in Kashmir against
India. The terrorist group is based in Muridke (near Lahore) and Muzaffarabad.
Lashkar i Jhangvi
Lashkar i Jhangvi is the militant offshoot of the Sunni
sectarian group Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan. The terrorist group focuses on anti-Shia attacks
and was banned by Pakistani President Musharraf in an effort to rein in sectarian
violence. Many of its members then refuge in Afghanistan with the Taliban. In January
2003, the United States added LJ to the list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. The
terrorist group is active in Punjab and Karachi.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
The terrorist group was also called The Tamil Tigers and The Ellalan Force. The LTTE is
the most powerful Tamil group in Sri Lanka. It has relied on a guerrilla strategy that
includes the use of terrorist tactics.
The LTTE has integrated a battlefield insurgent strategy a program that targets key
personnel and senior Sri Lankan political and military leaders in Colombo and other urban
areas. Notorious for its cadre of suicide bombers, the Black Tigers. The terrorist group's
organizations support Tamil separatism by lobbying foreign governments and the United
Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK)
The terrorist group was also called The National Liberation Army of Iran. The MEK
philosophy mixes Marxism and Islam. The organization was expelled from Iran after the
Islamic Revolution in 1979, and its support came from the former Iraqi regime of Saddam
Hussein. The MEK conducted anti-Western attacks prior to the Islamic Revolution.
National Liberation Army (ELN)
The ELN is a Colombian Marxist insurgent group by urban intellectuals inspired by Fidel
Castro and Che Guevara. It is rural-based.
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
The terrorist group was also called Islamic Jihad of
Palestine. Formed by militant Palestinians in the Gaza Strip during the 1970s it is
committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel.
The terrorist group operates in Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.
Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
PLF-Abu Abbas Faction
The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) broke away from the PFLP-GC and later split again
into pro-PLO, pro-Syrian, and pro-Libyan factions. The terrorist group is based in Iraq
since 1990, has a presence in Lebanon and the West Bank.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
Founded by George Habash when it broke away from the Arab
Nationalist Movement in 1967. The PFLP wants a revolution against Western imperialism. The
terrorist group earned a reputation for spectacular international attacks that have killed
at least 20 US citizens.
PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC)
The PFLP-GC split from the PFLP in 1968, claiming it
wanted to focus more on fighting and less on politics. It was opposed to the Arafat-led
PLO. The PFLP-GC is closely tied to both Syria and Iran.
Usama Bin Ladin Organization
Al-Qaida was established in 1988 with Arabs who fought in Afghanistan against the
Soviet Union. Goal is to unite Muslims to fight the United States as a means of defeating
Israel, and expelling Westerners and non-Muslims from Muslim countries, and establishment
of a pan-Islamic caliphate throughout the world.
The group probably has several thousand extremists and associates worldwide inspired by
the groups ideology. Al-Qaida has cells worldwide and is reinforced by its
ties to Sunni extremist networks.
32-County Sovereignty Committee
RIRA was a "political pressure group" dedicated to removing British forces from
Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. The 32-County Sovereignty Movement opposed Sinn
Feins adoption of the Mitchell principles of democracy and non-violence. The
terrorist group operates in Northern Ireland, Great Britain, and Irish Republic.
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
The military wing of the Colombian Communist Party, the
FARC is largest and best-equipped insurgency of Marxist origin. The FARC is governed by a
general secretariat led by long-time leader Manuel Marulanda including senior military
commander Jorge Briceno. The terrorist group operates in Colombia.
Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA)
The terrorist group is also called Revolutionary Cells, Revolutionary Popular Struggle,
ELA. The group is believed to be the successor to or offshoot of Greeces most
prolific terrorist group Revolutionary Peoples Struggle. RN has not claimed an
attack since November 2000. Group membership is believed to be small drawing from the
Greek militant leftist or anarchist milieu.
Revolutionary Organization 17 November
17 November is a radical leftist group established in and named for the student uprising
in Greece that protested the ruling military junta. 17 November is an anti-Greek
establishment that seeks the ouster of US bases from Greece and the severing of
Greeces ties to NATO and the European Union (EU).
Revolutionary People?s Liberation Army
The terrorist group is also called Devrimci Sol, Dev Sol and Revolutionary Left. The group
espouses a Marxist-Leninist ideology and is vehemently anti-US, anti-NATO, and
Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC)
The terrorist group is also called Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat. The Salafist
Group for Call and Combat seeks to overthrow the Algerian Government with the goal of
installing an Islamic regime. GSPC is currently the most effective and largest armed group
inside Algeria. In contrast to the GIA.
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL)
Sendero Luminoso Peoples Liberation Army
Abimael Guzman formed SL in Peru in the late 1960s, and his teachings created the
foundation of SLs militant Maoist doctrine. Approximately 30,000 persons have died
since Shining Path took up arms in 1980. Its stated goal is to destroy existing Peruvian
institutions and replace them with a communist peasant revolutionary regime.
United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)
Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
The AUC is an umbrella organization formed to coordinate the activities of local
paramilitary groups and develop a cohesive paramilitary effort to combat insurgents.
Primary objective is to protect its sponsors from Marxist insurgents. Approximately 3,600
AUC-affiliated fighters have demobilized since November 2003.
Communist Party of the Philippines/New People?s
The NPA is a Maoist group with the aim of overthrowing the Government through protracted
guerrilla warfare. The NPAs founder, Jose Maria Sison, directs CPP and NPA activity
from The Netherlands, where he lives in self-imposed exile. Fellow Central Committee
member Luis Jalandoni also lives in The Netherlands and has become a Dutch citizen.
Jemaah Islamiya organization (JI)
JI is believed to have cells spanning Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Investigations indicate that JI is fully capable of its own fundraising.