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A taboo is social or cultural prohibition. Disregarding taboo is generally considered a deviant act by society. Taboo is a polynesian word, first encountered by Captain Cook, meaning literally marked off. Taboo is putting of a person or thing under temporary or permanent prohibition or interdict, especially as a social custom. Taboo also means forbidden to general use or to a particular person or class of people.
Taboo is a customary prohibition or interdict. Also, the system or custom, especially in certain societies, by which such prohibitions occur. Taboo refers to those special articles or symbols within a culture that are given a distinct status as either sacred, metaphysical or dangerous. Taboo may mean set apart for or consecrated to a special use or purpose. Conduct Norms can be classified as general conduct norms and specific conduct norms.
Tabooism is a system of taboo. Vegetarianism, halal and kosher food can be regarded as part of restrictions one is expected to adhere to. There can be taboo of the use of certain words and topics in social conversation. A taboo is an "unthinkable" action that even the thought of violating it triggers social punishment. We consider a model in which deliberating over breaking a taboo provides information on possible private benefits but entails social costs. The strength of the taboo is endogenously determined. We examine how taboos can change and disappear over time and analyze the relationship between social heterogeneity and the effectiveness of taboos. We extend our model to societies in which individuals may choose among several identities, characterized by different taboos and characterize the conditions that give rise to a multi-identity society.
Sigmund Freud, in Totem and Taboo, speculated that
incest and patricide were the only two universal taboos and formed the basis of
civilization. But in India there many more taboos.
Menstruation: A girl undergoing menstruation is unclean, and thus should not be allowed to pray or do certain other things. Even public discouse about menstruation is wrong.
Sex: Speaking about sex in public is a a real taboo. It is not even to be discussed, and asking for condoms means that you are indulging in activities that are a taboo.
Homosexuality: It is unnatural, it defies the laws of nature.
Inter-religion marriage: One should not marry outside of one’s own religion.
Divorce: Only uncultured people divorce. Marriages are made in heaven, and divorce id abolutely a taboo.
The incest taboo? A reconsideration of Westermarck - Gregory C. Leavitt
Idaho State University, USA, Anthropological Theory, Vol. 7, No. 4, 393-419 (2007)
The ongoing discussion between social scientists who espouse some variety of socio-environmental theory ('Disappearance of the Incest Taboo', American Anthropologist, 1989) and those who advance Darwinian selection principles (human sociobiology, Darwinian social science, behavioral genetics, or evolutionary psychology) have often focused their debate on the incest taboo and the avoidance of inbreeding. Human sociobiology forwards the argument that natural selection mechanisms will favor outbreeding because inbreeding is deleterious. I not only challenge the commonly held notion that inbreeding is injurious, but also argue that inbreeding is often harmless and even fitness-enhancing.
Food taboos: their origins and purposes - Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2009, 5:18.
Abstract: Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary taboos and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence) of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos.
Human Origins and Taboo - J. C. MCKERROW - Nature 144, (23 December 1939).
Abstract: we think of the evolution of man from some anthropoid stock as the evolution of mainly instinctive (innately conditioned) behaviour into mainly customary (socially conditioned) behaviour, we can both see the possibility of the formation of a larger group than the family one characteristic of extant anthropoids and can relate the said possibility to the facts of taboo and totemism.
Taboo - Nature 155, 440-440 (14 April 1945)
PROF. HUTTON WEBSTER is well known from his earlier books on "Primitive Secret Societies" and on "Rest Days". His new book, on "Taboo", collects together from ethnographical literature a mass of data concerning t ie ritual prohibitions found in what are commonly called 'primitive societies'.
Family, Kinship and the Origins of the Incest Taboo - Maryanski, Alexandra
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association
Abstract: The near universality of the incest taboo against inbreeding between three sets of dyads in nuclear kinship units is an ideal topic for co-evolutionary analysis. Drawing from primatology, neurology, the sociology of emotions, evolutionary biology, anthropology, clinical psychology, and sociology, this paper not only seeks to shed new light on the origins of the taboo itself, but also on variations in (1) the power of the taboo to regulate mother-son, brother-sister, and father-daughter sexual relations; (2) the differences in the rates of incest among these incestuous dyads; and (3) the resulting differences in the psychopathologies that emerge when the taboo is violated.