Transmission of subcultural norms draws heavily on social
learning theory, strain theory, and theories regarding identity
"In some insulated and deprived places, where long-term poverty, low labor force participation, outside-marriage childbearing, school drop-outs, welfare dependency, and other social problems prevail, deviant role models emerge and encourage health-destructive behaviors such as use of illegal drugs and violence" (Wilson 1987; Wilson 1996).
perspective postulates that the poor who reside in areas plagued by poverty and social problems, by virtue of their exclusion from the
mainstream societies and social isolation from positive role models, develop a lifestyle
that is by nature different from that of the middle-class societies in which they live and
assumes a life of its own and passed across generations through cultural
transmission" (Steinberg 1989; Wilson 1987).
A subculture is a distinctive culture within a culture, so
its norms and values differ from the majority culture but do not necessarily represent a
culture deemed deviant by the majority. A subculture is distinguished from a
counterculture which operates in direct opposition to the majority culture. Cultural
Transmission Theory and Social Disorganisation
Theory posit that, in the poorest zones of a city, certain forms of behaviour become
the cultural norm transmitted from one generation to the next, as part of the normal
socialisation process. Successful criminals are role models for the young, demonstrating
both the possibilities of success through crime, and its normality.