Sociology Index


Streaming is the assigning of students to distinctive streams or programs within the education system. For example, a university bound stream and a vocational stream. While schools may think this assignment is based on the cognitive ability of students or on their special needs, sociologists have frequently shown that the assignment is based on social characteristics (class, gender, race, etc.).

In sociology of education studies of the effects of streaming and banding carried out by Hargreaves, Lacey and Ball provide one of the few examples of a powerful theory which has survived systematic testing. This sequence of studies provides the basis for a research programme extending beyond the field of education. - From "Ethnography to Theory: A Programme and Paradigm in the Sociology of Education" - Sociology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 244-259 (1985).

Teacher Careers and Comprehensive Schooling: An Empirical Study 
George F. Riseborough, Manchester Polytechnic - Sociology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 352-380 (1981)
This paper is based on an investigation of a reorganized comprehensive school. Although in the tradition of the `new' sociology of education, it is critical of aspects of such an approach.

It attempts to give a greater insight than hitherto into the work relationships of teachers in schools; concentrates on the consequences for self and role performance of teacher career experience, focusing particularly on teacher/headteacher interaction. Intra-school `horizontal' and `vertical' aspects of teachers' careers (particularly, `the streaming of teachers') and associated moral careers are examined; and the formation of a `cabal' and a `clique' noted. This professional segmentation is linked with the streaming of children and the distribution of `stratified knowledge' within the school, which are seen to guarantee distinctive pupil identities and educational careers. In conclusion, the suggestion is made that comprehensive schooling, as at this school, is a negation of the comprehensive principle.

The term streaming is also used to describe multimedia that is continuously received by, and or displayed to, the end-user whilst it is being delivered by the provider. Most delivery systems are either inherently streaming as in radio or television, or inherently non-streaming as in books, news papers or audio CDs. 

The Real-time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and the Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) were specifically designed to stream media over networks.

The ability and the right to record streams has become a significant issue in the application of law to cyberspace.