Stratification is the condition of being stratified. Stratification is a configuration that is borrowed from the geological word strata. Stratification in society refers to the social structure or structure of society and the way individuals are arranged in divisions that lead to a kind of hierarchy in which power and wealth are divided unequally. Sociologists studying global stratification analyze economic comparisons between nations. Income, purchasing power, and wealth are used to calculate global stratification. Global stratification also compares the quality of life that a country’s population can have. In mathematics, stratification is any consistent assignment of numbers to predicate symbols so that a unique formal interpretation of a logical theory exists. Stratification is useful for guaranteeing unique interpretation of Horn clause theories.
Stratification has been used by W V Quine to address Russell's paradox. In Western societies, social stratification is typically defined in terms of three social classes:
(i) the upper class,
(ii) the middle class, and
(iii) the lower class; in turn, each class can be subdivided into , e.g. the upper-stratum, the middle-stratum, and the lower stratum. Moreover, a social stratum can be formed upon the bases of kinship, clan, tribe or caste. - Saunders, Peter (1990).
Social Class and Stratification. Routledge.
Archaeological stratification or sequence is the superimposition of units of stratigraphy. Excavation techniques are based on stratigraphic principles. Atmospheric stratification includes five main layers: Exosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere and Troposphere. Population stratification is the mixture of individuals from heterogeneous genetic backgrounds. In population stratification, ethnicity acts as a surrogate for the true risk factor, which may be environmental or genetic.
Sociologists distinguish two types of systems of stratification. This difference in stratification systems can be examined by the comparison between class systems and caste systems. Different systems of stratification reflect, emphasize, and foster certain cultural values, and shape individual beliefs. Closed systems of stratification accommodate little change in social position. They do not allow people to shift levels and do not permit social relations between levels. Open systems of stratification, which are based on achievement, allow movement and interaction between layers and classes.
The CAMSIS project is an internationally comparative assessment of the structures of social interaction and stratification across a number of countries. At its core lies the construction - and dissemination - of occupational scales for each constituent country. The scale values represent an occupational unit's relative position within the national order of social interaction and stratification.
Global Stratification: World Hunger Year - WHY attacks root causes of hunger and poverty by promoting effective and innovative community-based solutions which create self-reliance, economic justice, and food security.
International Stratification and Mobility File (ISMF) is a collection of standardized sample survey data with information on social stratification and social mobility, in particular respondent's and parent's social statuses (education, occupation). Access to these data can only be obtained by request, but some of the resources used for creating the ISMF are open for public access.