Sociology Topical Index & Dictionary - C
Calvinism - John Calvin's international influence on the development of the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation began at the age of 25. Calvinism is important for sociologists as a component of the Protestant ethic, considered favorable to the development of capitalism.
Capital - Capital is accumulation of goods or wealth used for the production of other goods and services rather than for immediate or personal use. If a computer is used to generate revenue then only it can be considered capital. Capital is central to a capitalist economic system. We also have human capital, social capital or individual capital.
Capital Accumulation - Capital accumulation is the process of accumulating resources for use in the production of goods and services. Private capital accumulation occurs when productive capacity exceeds the immediate needs for consumption.
Capital Punishment - Capital punishment is the punishment of crime by execution of the offender. The word capital in 'capital punishment' is from Latin and it refers to the head, the locus of life. Capital punishment is still widely imposed in world societies. Capital punishment has been abolished in the countries of western Europe and in Canada.
Capitalism - Capitalism is an economic system in which capital (goods or wealth used to produce other goods for profit) is privately owned and profit is reinvested so as to accumulate capital. The dynamics of the economic exchange in capitalism are unique.
Career Criminal - Career criminal has been applied to analyzing the various stages of an individual's involvement with criminal activity. Career criminal is one whose criminality is just like a career. Career criminals devote many aspects of their life to criminality.
Cargo Cult - Since the time E E. Williams characterized the cargo cult phenomenon as a kind of madness, but this characterization has been challenged by anthropologists. Cargo cult is a form of millenarian movement that believes in what is to come. The cargo cults involve the belief that ritual activities and observances will lead to the arrival of free cargoes of goods.
Carl Gustav Jung - Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. Carl Jung was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician for most of his life. Carl Jung's unconscious, as opposed to Freud's, serves a very positive role.
Carrying Capacity - Carrying capacity in ecology refers to the level of land or resource use both by humans or animals, that can be sustained over the long term by the natural regenerative power of the environment. Sustainable development is economic activity or growth which does not reduce or deplete the resources available to future generations.
Conservatism - Conservatism is a set of ideas that is not the same as those upheld by political parties calling themselves Conservative. Conservative parties are strongly associated with the idea of privatization, reduced social programs and promotion of free market economics. Increasing conservatism of Western society is reflected in those entering social work. Social work recruits by their choice of occupation are politically deviant.
Conspicuous consumption - Conspicuous consumption is the public display of individual possession and consumption of expensive goods and services. The theory of 'Veblen effects' arise from the desire to achieve social status by signaling wealth through conspicuous consumption. Conspicuous consumption, as used by Thorsten Veblen, conveys the idea of a society where social status is earned and displayed by patterns of consumption.
Consumer culture - Consumer culture is a culture in which the attainment of ownership and possession of goods and services is presented as the primary aim and the key source of social status and prestige. Consumer Culture Theory comprises macro, interpretive, and critical approaches to and perspectives of consumer behavior.
Content analysis - Content Analysis is a research method involving data capturing of variables descriptive of the content of a cultural expression such as movies, speeches, cartoons or advertisements.
Contest mobility - Contest mobility is a British term referring to what North Americans would refer to as social mobility through equality of opportunity. Contest mobility refers to system of social mobility in which all individuals are seen as participants in a race and the contest is an open one.
Continentalism - Continentalism was originally associated with the American vision of a manifest destiny of the United States to occupy the whole North American continent. The term continentalism now refers specifically to social and economic policies that encourage and advance economic and political integration of the countries of North America.
Contradictions of capitalism - When capitalist corporations grow more concentrated and larger, the number of individuals owning the means of production become fewer. This leads to political activation of the working class and prolonged conflict with the dominant bourgeois class through political and industrial organization.
Control Group - Control groups are used in controlled experiments to curb bias. Both groups are treated exactly the same in every way possible except for variable difference. The control group is used so that you have something to compare the experimental group to.