Sociology of Leisure and Sport
Soccer goes global. (Global Newsstand) - Richard Giulianotti - Soccer's recent World Cup finals in Japan and South Korea exemplify how the world's premier sport has become fully globalized. Before a worldwide television audience of more than 30 billion fans, 32 national teams from all continents. Soccer's diffusion and political structure offer an advanced case study in the globalization of a cultural form. Yet a closer look suggests that soccer's global advance, like many globalization processes, is less widespread than first meets the eye.
Female Athletes: Being both Athletic and Feminine
W. Stephen Royce, Janet L. Gebelt, & Robert W. Duff , University of Portland
Abstract: Because athletics traditionally has been seen as incompatible with traditional roles for women, female athletes have been expected to experience gender role conflict as they attempt to identify with incompatible roles.
However, while negative stereotypes of female athletes persist, research has found little such conflict. In this study, questionnaire and interview data from male and female college athletes and nonathletes suggest some explanations for this. The data showed: (a) Female athletes were accorded greater respect than were male athletes; (b) all groups' ratings of the femininity of female athletes were above the neutral point, though the ratings of men and nonathletes were significantly lower than those of women and athletes; and (c) consistent with the multiplicity perspective, female athletes reported experiencing their feminine and athletic identities as distinctively different aspects of self.
Cuba: Before and after the Wall came
down - Robert Chappell, Brunel University, London
Cubas current Socialist government is organised according to notions of Marxist-Leninist democratic centralism, with decision making centralised at the national level. Policy making and funding are centralised in all areas including sport (Petavino & Pye, 1996, p. 117). Sport now became a means of displaying antagonism towards the U.S. and as a vehicle for confirming solidarity with the Soviet Union.
The new Cuban system of sport was not necessarily a copy of the Soviet system, but the infrastructure of Cuban sports is unmistakably Soviet. Cuba is a Socialist dictatorship and is structured along the lines of the Eastern European countries which collapsed after 1989. Once established in power, Castro reformed all aspects Cuban society including sport. In this respect Cuba and its sporting success became a shop window for the display of superior Socialist values (Petavino & Pye, 1996; Pickering, 1980).
Sport in Turkey: the Post-Islamic Republican
Period - By: Ergun Yurdadon, Ph.D.
A Brief Evaluation of Development of Turkish Sport from 1839 to 1923
Although the modern Turkish Republic was officially established in 1923, the liberalization, secularization and the democratization process of the Republic was initiated in 1839. All of these three phases occurred in conjunction with the Tanzimat reforms, which granted partial constitutional rights to the Turkish people.
Soccer Culture in Brazil
By: Antonio J. Muller, Doctoral Student in Education, The University of Texas at El Paso
Brazil is considered the premier soccer country. Soccer is a way of life for millions of Brazilians and exerts an immense influence in a social context. However, soccer could be used in a more appropriate way by its inclusion in Brazils schools. The purpose of this paper is to understand the unique characteristics and social impact of soccer in Brazil.
Japan Journal of Sport Sociology - Abstract: Both theoretical and empirical sociological works tell as that rapid social change in a local society might produce conflicts and problems. This paper tells the story about what happened to the community of Lillehammer (23,000 inhabitants) during the construction period and during the 16 olympics days.
A Season Long Case Study Investigation of
Collective Efficacy In Male Intercollegiate Basketball - David MacLean &
Philip Sullivan, Department of Physical Education and Kinesiology, Brock University.
Abstract: Collective efficacy is defined as a groups shared belief, which emerges from an aggregation of individual group
members perception of the groups capabilities to succeed at a given task (Bandura, 1986). The present study used a case study design to explore the relationships between collective efficacy and performance over the course of one season. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between collective efficacy and team performance. Although this prediction was not supported, findings indicated that there was a positive relationship between collective efficacy and the opponents winning percentage. Although the lack of a performance-confidence relationship may be due to the limitations of case study design, the importance of the quality of the opponent is consistent with previous conceptualization.
A Prospective Analysis Of Self-Determined Sport Motivation And Sportspersonship Orientations - Yves Chantal & Iouri Bernache-Assollant, University de Limoges, Limoges, France.
In recent years, a number of authors from various fields have advocated the need for studying sportspersonship more
extensively (Morgan, Meier & Schneider, 2001). Sportspersonship can be defined as concern and respect for the rules and officials, social conventions, the opponent, as well as one's full commitment to one's sport and the relative absence of a negative approach to sport participation. Another way of referring to sportspersonship is to say that it provides a clear indication of the extent to which an athlete is willing to stretch the rules for victory. Put simply, the notion of sportspersonship thus has to do with how athletes will be inclined to play the game (Vallerand & Losier, 1994).
Trail, G. T., Fink, J. S., & Anderson, D. F. (2003). Sport spectator consumption behavior. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 12, 8-17. - Abstract: The competition for the sport consumer dollar has increased tremendously in recent years. A better understanding of why sport spectators and fans consume media and merchandise would benefit sport marketers and managers greatly. To date, no empirically tested model has proposed explanatory and predictive relationships among fan/spectator motives and behavior variables.
Trail, G. T., Anderson, D.F., & Fink, J. S. (2000). A
theoretical model of sport spectator consumption behavior. International Journal of Sport
Management, 1, 154-180.
Abstract: Sport spectating is a popular leisure activity in the United States and each year becomes a larger promotional tool for big business. Using a review of sport spectator literature, this article presents a comprehensive theoretical model to enhance our understanding and study of sport fan/spectator consumption behavior.
Trail, G. T., Anderson, D. F., & Fink, J. S. (2002). Examination of gender differences in importance and satisfaction with venue factors at intercollegiate basketball games: Effects on future spectator attendance. International Sports Journal, 6, 51-64. Abstract: The results of this study indicated that respondents differed on satisfaction with, and importance of, venue characteristics (overall venue cleanliness, concessions, parking, usher behavior, restrooms, audio experience) at intercollegiate basketball games based on team gender and spectator gender.
Fink, J. S., Trail, G. T., & Anderson, D. F.
(2002). An examination of team identification: Which motives are most salient to its
existence? International Sports Journal, 6,(2).
Abstract: Team identification is a strong predictor of sport fan consumption behavior. Fans high in team identification are more likely to attend games, pay more for tickets, spend more money on team merchandise, and stay loyal to the team during periods of poor performance. Although Wann (1995) has used the relationships between identification and motives for psychometric purposes, no one has examined the relationship of specific motives on the variance of team identification. Therefore, this study examined the effects of eight motives (vicarious achievement, acquisition of knowledge, aesthetics, social interaction, drama/excitement, escape, family, and quality of physical skill of the participants) to determine which contributed most to the variance of team identification. Through structural equation modeling (SEM) we found that vicarious achievement explained the most variance in team identification (40%). We also investigated whether gender had a differential effect on the motives-identification relationship. Although the models were significantly different, the relationships among the motive paths to identification changed little. For both men and women, the vicarious achievement motive explained the most variance in team identification (men 50% and women 30%), each of the remainder of the motives explained less than 5% of identification variance for either men or women. Results and implications of the research are provided.
Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson D.F.
(2002). Environmental factors associated with spectator attendance and sport consumption
behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19.
Abstract: Sport spectating is a popular leisure activity in the United States; however there has been limited study of sport spectator consumption behavior. We were interested in the differences between genders and between spectators at men and women's intercollegiate athletic basketball games on several categories of dependent variables. The three categories were environmental factors that were associated with game attendance (ticket pricing, friends, family, and promotions), present behavior of spectators (merchandise consumption, media consumption, and wearing of team paraphernalia), future behavior of fans (continued loyalty, future attendance, and future merchandise consumption). Data were collected from spectators at two home men's (n=531) and two home women's (n=751) intercollegiate basketball games. Multivariate analysis of variance results for the main effects of team gender and spectator gender were significant, while the interaction effect was not. Fewer gender differences were found (5 of 12) compared to the number of gender of team differences (10 of 12) when univariate results were examined. Results are discussed in detail and implications for practice are suggested.