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SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

An index of socio-economic status, Social class

Socioeconomic status is a term which is often contrasted with that of social class. Socioeconomic status, largely an American usage, has developed as a way to operationalize or measure social class on the assumptions that class groupings are not real groups.

Socioeconomic status is a rather arbitrary category and is developed by combining the position or score of persons on criteria such as income, amount of education, type of occupation held, or neighborhood of residence.

The scores can then be arbitrarily divided so as to create socioeconomic divisions such as upper class, middle class, lower class.

Sociologists are interested in socioeconomic status, as they are in class, since it is assumed that this status affects life chances in numerous ways.

Socioeconomic Status and Delinquent Behavior: A Retest 
Ronald L. Akers, Department of Sociology, University of Kentucky 

Abstract: Some years ago F. Ivan Nye conducted a study in Washington in which he strongly questioned the traditional findings of a pre ponderance of delinquent behavior among the lower classes. Using self-reported behavior rather than official criteria, he found no sig nificant relationship between delinquent behavior and socio-economic status. The respondents in that study were the students of high schools in three small communities. The present paper reports a retest of the hypothesis of that study in an urban community. Delinquent behavior was self-reported, and socio-economic status was determined by employing the North-Hatt occupational prestige scale to rank the occupations of the respond ents' fathers. 

A number of significance tests revealed no significant differences in delinquent behavior by socio-economic status, and correlational analysis revealed no correlation between the two variables. The results confirmed those of the Nye study. Thus, those theories of delinquency positing a disproportionate amount of delinquent behavior in the lower socio-economic status levels are again met with empirical contradiction, this time in a large city.

Assessing the Socioeconomic Status of Families - Albert F. Osborn 
Abstract: Occupational classifications have long been the conventional method of assigning individuals, families and household to social class or socio-economic status positions. This practice has been subject to mounting criticism in recent years, either because of doubts about the validity of scales such as the OPCS Classification of Occupations or because of objections to the use of husbands' occupations to assign their wives and families to a class position. This article reviews this debate, and proposes an alternative method of assessing the socio-economic status of families by means of a composite Social Index comprising seven social indicators: occupation and education of the heads of household, housing tenure, type of accommodation, persons per room, car and telephone ownership. The construction and rationale of the Index are described and its special advantages explained. These include the capability of providing an assessment of the socio-economic status of single-parent families having no relevant occupational information, and increased sensitivity and reliability compared with OPCS social class. -

Socioeconomic Position, Gender and Health - How Do They Interact? 
Sally MacIntyre, Kate Hunt, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, University of Glasgow, Scotland 
Abstract: There is a large research literature on socio-economic inequalities in health (and explanations for these inequalities); there is also a large literature on gender differences in health (and explanations for these differences). However, the two bodies of research are rarely integrated to ask, for example, whether socio-economic inequalities vary by gender, or whether gender differences vary by socio-economic status or position. The separation of these two research traditions may be to the detriment of theoretical development in both of them; and in particular, asymmetrical treatment of men and women in research in inequalities in health may hinder our ability to explain the mechanisms producing inequalities. This article reviews the intersection of socio-economic status or position and gender, and argues for more systematic and symmetrical examination of the interaction between socio-economic status or position and gender in the social patterning of health.

Health and Socioeconomic Position - A Commentary 
Douglas Carroll, University of Birmingham, George Davey Smith, University of Bristol,
Abstract: This Special Issue focuses on health variations contingent on socio-economic status or position. Among the numerous reasons why health psychologists should attend to such variations are their pervasiveness, their magnitude and their continuation into better-off social groups. The latter raises the possibility that psychosocial factors may be involved. Recent data revealing that socio-economic health inequalities have increased in recent years, in parallel with increasing income inequalities in countries such as the UK and USA, provide further reason. However, effective intervention will require structural approaches that directly counter socio-economic disparity.

Physical Activity Behaviors in Lower and Higher Socioeconomic Status Populations 
Earl S. Ford, Robert K. Merritt, Gregory W. Heath, Kenneth E. Powell, Richard A. Washburn, Andrea Kriska and Gwendolyn Haile
Abstract: Few data on physical activity habits among populations of low socio-economic status have been published. The authors studied physical activity habits, leisure-time physical activity, job-related physical activity, household physical activity, and walking, among 172 lower socio-economic status women and 84 lower socio-economic status men and compared their habits with those of 208 higher socio-economic status women and 95 higher socio-economic status men. All subjects resided in the greater Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. Data collection occurred throughout 1986. Lower socio-economic status women, the least active group, averaged 1,536 ± 1,701 minutes/week (±standard deviation) of total physical activity, whereas higher socio-economic status women, the most active group, averaged 2,079 ± 1,807 minutes/week (p < 0.0001). Higher socio-economic status men averaged 1,952 ± 1,799 minutes/week, and lower socio-economic status men averaged 1,948 ± 1,916 minutes/week. Higher socio-economic status women spent significantly more time each week in leisure-time physical activity, job-related physical activity, and household physical activity than did lower socio-economic status women. Lower socio-economic status men spent significantly more time each week walking and doing household chores, whereas higher socio-economic status men tended to be more active in leisure-time physical activity. These data suggest important quantitative and qualitative differences in physical activity among population subgroups. In view of the important role of physical activity in promoting physical and mental health, reasons for the differences among groups of varying socio-economic status must be examined and elucidated.

Books on the impact of socio-economic status

Socio-Economic Status And Living Arrangements Of Older Persons In Lithuania by Sarmite Mikulioniene and V. Stankuniene

Population Ageing and Socio-Economic Status of Older Persons in Estonia by United Nations

Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in C Alifornia by Elias Lopez, Ginny Puddefoot, and Patricia Bandara

The burden of disease associated with being African-American in the United States and the contribution of socio-economic status [An article from: Social Science & Medicine] by P. Franks, P. Muennig, E. Lubetkin, and H. Jia

Don't throw out the baby with the bathwater: the case for a reformed SES funding scheme.(socio-economic status): An article from: Australian Journal of Education by Louise Watson

Individual socio-economic status, community socio-economic status and stroke in New Zealand: A case control study. by P. Brown, M. Guy, and J. Broad

The impact of socio-economic status on the practice, perception and attitudes of secondary school girls towards Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).: An article from: Ahfad Journal by Ahmed Abdel Magied, Huda Failed, Marwa Salama, and Hanaa Salama (Digital - Jul 31, 2005) - HTML

Measures of Socio-Economic Status: Current Issues by Mary G. Powers (Hardcover - Aug 1982)

Hispanic origin, socio-economic status, and community college enrollment.by Noga O'Connor

Social capital, socio-economic status and psychological distress among Australian adults [An article from: Social Science & Medicine] by P. Phongsavan, T. Chey, A. Bauman, and R. Brooks

Students' attitude towards religion in relation to personality characteristics, intelligence, and socio-economic status by O. P Kohli

Socio-economic Status of Farming Communities in Northern India by Ajit Kumar Singh

Children of Preschool Age: Studies in Socio-Economic Status, Social Adjustment and Mental Ability, with Illustrative Cases by Ethel Kawin

Resting frontal brain activity: linkages to maternal depression and socio-economic status among adolescents. by A.J. Tomarken, G.S. Dichter, J. Garber, and C. Simien

Air pollution, health, and socio-economic status: the effect of outdoor air quality on childhood asthma. by M.J. Neidell

Socio-Economic Status of Scavengers- A Study by Sabir Ali

Vitamin A deficiency among children from low socio-economic status living in different environments in Khartoum State.: An article from: Ahfad Journal by Elham Ahmed Hamed, Ahmed Abdel Magied, and Ammar Hassan Khamis.

Understanding the role of mediating risk factors and proxy effects in the association between socio-economic status and untreated hypertension [An article from: Social Science & Medicine] by A. Colin Bell, L.S. Adair, and B.M. Popkin.

Eco Tipping Points: how a vicious cycle can become virtuous.(Thailand's socio-economic status): An article from: Earth Island Journal by Amanda Suutari and Gerald Marten.

Inequity and disparity in oral health--Part II. Socio-economic status and deprivation: can dental hygiene diminish the impact?(EVIDENCE FOR PRACTICE): ... from: Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene by Joanna Asadoorian.

Socio-economic Status and Living Arrangements of Older Persons in Finland by Economic Commission for Europe, Anneli Miettinen, Mauri Nieminen, and United Nations.

CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGEStudies in Socio-Economic Status, Social Adjustment and Mental Ability, with Illustrative Cases by Ethel Kawin.

Health hazards and socio-economic status: a neighbourhood cohort approach, Vancouver, 1976-2001.: An article from: The Canadian Geographer by Michael Buzzelli, Jason Su, Nhu Le, and Tenny Bache.

Sister to Sister Gestational 'Surrogacy' 13 Years on: A Narrative of Parenthood / Prenatal Depression Effects on the Foetus and Neonate in Different Ethnic and Socio-Economic Status Groups / Using the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, Volume 20, Number 3 - August 2002) by PhD Suzanne Zeedyk.

John Henryism, self-reported physical health indicators, and the mediating role of perceived stress among high socio-economic status Asian immigrants [An article from: Social Science & Medicine] by J. Haritatos, R. Mahalingam, and S.A. James.

Children of Preschool Age Studies in Socio-Economic Status, Social Adjustment and Mental Ability, with Illustrative Cases by Ethel Kawin.

Children's education and maturation process: A study in relation to socio-economic status, sex, and intelligence by Pushpa Agarwal.

Socio Economic Status of Women and Fertility by Harvinder Kaur.

The socio-economic status trends of the Mexican people residing in Arizona by Raymond Johnson Flores.

Socio-economic status, health and lifestyle by P. Contoyannis and A.M. Jones.

Differences in attachment security between African-American and white children: ethnicity or socio-economic status? [An article from: Infant Behavior and Development] by M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.H.v. IJzendoorn, and Kroo.

Children's growth and socio-economic status in Hungary [An article from: Economics and Human Biology] by O. Eiben and C. Mascie-Taylor

Socio-Economic Status of Widows by K. Padmanabhan

Muslims in India: Their Educational, Demographic and Socio-Economic Status With Inter-Community Comparisons Based on Field Survey Conducted in 1991 by Aijazuddin Ahmad

A census-based socio-economic status (SES) index as a tool to examine the relationship between mental health services use and deprivation [An article from: Social Science & Medicine] by J.E. Tello, J. Jones, P. Bonizzato, and M. Mazzi

Dalit women: Socio economic status and issues by S. K Singh

TOBACCO USE: DO SMOKEFREE AIR POLICIES, POLITICAL FACTORS, HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE FACTORS, AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS MATTER? by Sesime Adanu

Contemporary Croatia in the Yugoslav federation: Its constitutional status and socio-economic position by Branko M Pes̀Œelj

Diversity, regeneration status and socio-economic importance of the vegetation in the islands of Lake Ziway, south-central Ethiopia by H. Zegeye, D. Teketay, and E. Kelbessa

Women, family demands and health: the importance of employment status and socio-economic position by L. Artazcoz, C. Borrell, J. Benach, and I. Cortes

A European comparative study of marital status and socio-economic inequalities in suicide by The EU Working Group, V. Lorant, A.E. Kunst, and Huisma

Socio-Economic Political Status and Women & Law in Pakistan

Socio-Economic Status And Living Arrangements Of Older Persons In Latvia by Latvijas Universit Ate.