Books on Social
What is a Social Movement? The Sociology of
Sociologists have viewed social movements using a number of different perspectives. Social
movements as a response to social strains. Social movements as a reflection of trends and
directions throughout the society more generally. Social movements as a reflection of
individual dissatisfaction and feelings of deprivation. and Social movements as a natural
step in the generation and modification of social institutions.
Social movements are organized and sustained activities
that have a clear goal in terms of achieving or preventing social
change. Sociological interpretations of social movements will help bring larger
theoretical questions to bear on empirical evidence. Social problems are generally characterized by the traits
of specific social movements. Astroturfing is advocacy in
support of a political or corporate agenda appearing as a "grassroots" social
Herbert Blumer set forth a typology
of social movementst. General social movements consist of vague goals or objectives and
lack organization, leadership, and structure. Specific social movements usually grows out
of a general movement as the latter grows out of a cultural drift.
Norm-oriented social movements are
content to leave the underlying culture and organization of a society pretty much intact,
striving only for changes in some of the social arrangements, rules, norms,
laws, and other less fundamental aspects. Most social problems are of the norm-oriented
type and only very rarely value-oriented, for they do not typically address the basis of
the culture itself.
Value-oriented social movements include
many of the movements called by Blumer "expressive" and "nationalist,"
many of the religious movements of history, and probably all of the movements based on the
great "isms," such as Communism, Fascism, millenarianism which attempt to reorder entire ways of
Feminist research demonstrates that gender is an
explanatory factor in the emergence of all social movements. The role
that social movements play in the social
construction of gender. Feminist ideas and social movements emerged in Europe, Great
Britain, and the United States in an international context that promoted the migration of
people and ideas.
In social movements leaders must strive to preserve the
movements' collective identity in opposition to the dominant culture. An examination of
the environmental movement in the United States
shows that sustainable social movements will combine efforts at legal change with efforts
to change underlying social values. The relationship between
social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one.
Traditional work on the sociology of mass movements
concentrated on the processes by which such movements emerged, how mass social movements
recruited new members, defined their goals, and gathered the initial resources that would
allow them to survive. Professionally oriented social movements enjoy advantages in terms
of expertise, organization, they also are often relatively easy for the state to control.
Social Movement Cultures (Washington State).
This site seeks to bring together the best insights of sociology, political science,
anthropology, history, cultural studies, American
studies, ethnic studies, women's studies, as well as the insights of social movement
activists inside and outside of academia.
Social Movements Abstracts
A Durkheimian Theory of Social Movements
- Segre, Sandro - This essay formulates a Durkheimian rational
choice theory and network theory of social movements. This theory may account for the
different outcomes of the Civil Rights movement in the US and Social Democracy in Imperial
GENDER AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS - Gender Processes in
Women's Self-Help Movements
VERTA TAYLOR - Ohio State University.
How Have Recent Social Movements Shaped Civil
Rights Legislation for Women? The 1994 Violence Against Women Act by Kathryn Kish
Sklar and Suzanne Lustig.
This project focuses on the civil rights provisions which gave women victims of violence
access to federal courts.
Social Movements as Catalysts for Policy Change:
The Case of Smoking and Guns - Constance A. Nathanson - Johns Hopkins -
Identifies social movement ideologies and actions.
Historical Social Movements, Ecological Crisis
and Other World Views
Journal of Developing Societies, Vol. 24, No. 1, 31-56 (2008) - Sing C. Chew
Bioregionalism is a direct contrast to our world-view that underscores the themes of globalization, technologization of life and hyper
Social Movements, Law, and Society: The Institutionalization of the Environmental
Cary Coglianese - University of Pennsylvania Law School
John F. Kennedy School of Government Working Paper Series RWP01-046.
Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment
Robert D. Benford - University of Nebraska, David A. Snow - University of Arizona
How collective action frames have been conceptualized.
globalization and transnational social movements - Raimo Väyrynen
Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame
Economic globalization is associated with the liberalization of the world economy. States
and their sovereignty are not disappearing, but they cannot exercise their agentive power
as effectively as before.
Social Movements Research and the Movement of Movements: Studying
Resistance to Neoliberal Globalisation - By Laurence Cox and Alf Gunvald Nilsen,
National University of Ireland.
Explores research on the movement of movements against neoliberal
NGOs, Social Movements, External Funding and
Dependency - Fernand Vincent
Issues related to the financing sources and how they relate to the autonomy of NGOs.
Social Movements: An Analytical Exploration of Organizational Forms -
Russell L. Curtis, Jr., Louis A. Zurcher, Jr.
A review of the literature on social movement organizations.
DEMOCRATISATION AND THE DECLINE OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: THE EFFECTS OF REGIME CHANGE
ON COLLECTIVE ACTION IN EASTERN EUROPE, SOUTHERN EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA - CHRISTOPHER G.
PICKVANCE - Urban and Regional Studies Unit, University of Kent
Explores how regime change affects social movements, drawing on studies of Latin America,
Southern Europe and Eastern Europe.
What Are Social Movements and What Is Gendered About Women's Participation in
Social Movements? A Sociological Perspective - by Benita Roth and Marian Horan.
Health care reform and social movements in the United States. Hoffman B.
- Northern Illinois University
URBAN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND THE TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY IN PORTUGAL, 19741976
- PEDRO RAMOS PINTO, University of Manchester
The impact of the urban social movement active in Lisbon on the Portuguese transition to
From Wollstonecraft to Mill: What British and European Ideas and Social Movements
Influenced the Emergence of Feminism in the Atlantic World, 1792-1869? Nancy
Hewitt, revised by Kitty Sklar.
How Did Oberlin Women Students Draw on Their College Experience to Participate in
Antebellum Social Movements, 1831-1861? by Professor Carol Lasser and Oberlin
The female students at Oberlin embraced their gendered responsibilites for domestic
virtue. Female students in the antebellum era drew on their college experience to
participate in local as well as national social movements.
How Did Sarah Bagley Contribute to the Ten-Hour Movement in Lowell and How Did Her
Labor Activism Flow into Other Reform Movements, 1836-1870? - by Teresa Murphy
and Thomas Dublin.
Sarah Bagley campaigned tirelessly to make ten hours of labor per day the maximum in
How Did Diverse Activists Shape the Dress Reform Movement, 1838-1881? -
by Melissa Doak and Melissa Karetny.
The water curists, the Oneida community, and woman's rights reformers attempted to reform
women's dress. Varied reasons why women attempted to break free of the restraints of
nineteenth-century women's fashionable clothing.
How Did Diverse Activists in the Second Wave of the Women's Movement Shape
Emerging Public Policy on Sexual Harassment? by Carrie N. Baker.
The organized women's movement began to raise awareness about sexual harassment.