Sociology Index

Social Psychology

Social psychology is the scientific study of how we interact with, think about and influence other people. It includes such topics as group processes, prejudice, love, and persuasion. Social psychology is similar to sociology in the topics it covers, however, social psychology looks more specifically at individual or personal explanations, whereas sociology looks at cultural explanations. - Dr. S. Pack.

Socal psychology is the scientific study of humankind as social beings. The social psychologist is interested in how individuals think about others, influence others and are influenced by others, and how they interact with others.

Social psychology is exploration of theory and research concerning the individual in a social context. Social psychological principles are useful in stopping gang violence, reduction of discrimination, reduction of school dropout rates, reduction of domestic violence. Social psychological principles are also useful in influencing public policy, resisting the appeal of propaganda and behaviors in advertising.

Social Psychology Network is the largest social psychology database on the Internet. In these pages, you'll find more than 5,000 links related to psychology.

Social Psychology - Part of Trinity University's Sociological Tour Through Cyberspace, this resource gives overviews, statistics, and links to other pertinent sites. Topics include: theories and methods, gender and sex, environmental psychology, belief systems, living in a symbolic world, persuasion group dynamics, collective behavior, inequality, political psychologies, urbanization, Scientific Mentalities and much more.

Current Research in Social Psychology (CRISP) is a peer reviewed, electronic journal covering all aspects of social psychology. Publication is sponsored by the Center for the Study of Group Processes at the University of Iowa which provides free access to its contents. Authors retain copyright for their work. CRISP is permanently archived at the Library of the University of Iowa and at the Library of Congress. Beginning in April, 2000, Sociological Abstracts publishes the abstracts of CRISP articles.

Social Psychology Abstracts

RESPONSE TO SEPTEMBER 11: ANXIETY, PATRIOTISM, AND PREJUDICE IN THE AFTERMATH OF TERROR Chris L. Coryn, Western Michigan University, James M. Beale, University of Texas, Brownsville, Krista M. Myers, Indiana University, South Bend.
Abstract: In this study our P211 Methods of Experimental Psychology students and research team specifically examined feelings of personal anxiety created by terrorist attacks and ongoing conflict with the Middle East, patriotic attachment towards the United States, and subtle and blatant prejudicial attitudes toward Arabic people following the events of September 11, 2001.

The design, hypotheses, instrument selection, data collection, and analyses for this study were conducted by our students as a course learning tool. Our students developed three distinct hypotheses and conducted analysis of these hypotheses, with minimal assistance from our research team. Three hundred-one (174 female, 127 male) students at Indiana University South Bend completed questionnaires for our study, measuring levels of anxiety, patriotism, prejudice, and a variety of sociodemographic factors.

Four periods of data collection were completed during a period of 19 months following the events of September 11, 2001. Hypotheses developed by our students were tested using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) techniques. As predicted, anxiety producing events (periods 1 and 4 combined) coincided with greater patriotic attachment toward the United States and amplified prejudicial attitudes toward the target group; Arabic people. No significant differences were found for either gender or our experimental condition (support versus protest).

Abstract: Eighty-seven men and 219 women rated the desirability of either a low, moderate, or high risk-taker as a partner in several contexts. Women were more selective than men in all contexts. Men and women preferred risk takers as friends and short-term romantic partners but only women preferred risk takers as long-term romantic partners. The observed gender differences are consistent with predictions from the perspective of evolutionary psychology.

FACIAL MAKE-UP ELICITS POSITIVE ATTITUDES AT THE IMPLICIT LEVEL: EVIDENCE FROM THE IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST, Juliette Richetin, Jean-Claude Croizet, University Blaise Pascal, CNRS, France, Pascal Huguet, University Aix-Marseille.
Abstract: Three experiments tested whether the use of facial make-up elicits positive or negative implicit attitudes. Students in psychology, business, and aesthetics performed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IAT) measuring the link between portrayed women wearing or not wearing make-up and high versus low status professions, pleasant versus unpleasant words, and positive versus negative personality traits. Results showed that make-up was associated with positive traits and high-status professions at the implicit level.

Social psychology: the interplay between sociology and psychology.
Social Forces; 6/1/1995; Introductory extract - Thoits, Peggy A.
I will focus in this article on the point of greatest intersection between the disciplines of sociology and psychology: social psychology. Within this broad interdisciplinary tradition, sociologists and psychologists routinely cite and draw from each other's theory and research. I will argue, however, that the direction of strongest influence has run from psychology to sociology, rather than the reverse. Psychologists generally specialize in identifying the mechanisms or processes through which social phenomena have their effects on individuals. Consequently, sociologists often use, explicitly or implicitly, the work of psychologists to fill in the missing links that tie society to the individual. This observation fortifies Gove's argument that sociology is, or should be, an integrative discipline, a point to which I will return below.

The Various Social Psychologies
According to Allport (1968), social psychologists attempt to understand how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals. Allport's definition best applies to work within the discipline of psychology - what House (1977) and Stryker (1977) have termed psychological social psychology. Bystander research shows, for example, that multiple witnesses to an emergency are able to "diffuse responsibility" for taking action to other people. Diffusion of responsibility is a mechanism that helps to explain noninterventions.

An alternative brand of psychological social psychology has flourished in recent years. This is cognitive social psychology or the social cognition approach, which investigates how people store and process information.Cognitions are loosely viewed as social in this approach because they are derived from social experience and have consequences for subsequent interpersonal behavior.

Social Psychology Journals

Electronic Journal - Current Research in Social Psychology (CRISP) - [ISSN 1088-7423]
Editor: Lisa Troyer, University of Iowa, Deputy Editor: Leda Nath, University of Wisconsin.

Current Research in Social Psychology (CRISP) is a peer reviewed, electronic journal covering all aspects of social psychology. Publication is sponsored by the Center for the Study of Group Processes at the University of Iowa which provides free access to its contents.

Authors retain copyright for their work. CRISP is permanently archived at the Library of the University of Iowa and at the Library of Congress. Beginning in April, 2000, Sociological Abstracts publishes the abstracts of CRISP articles.

Journal of Family Psychology - ISSN: 0893-3200, Published quarterly, Editor: Anne E. Kazak.

Developmental Psychology
Journal Description: Editor: James L. Dannemiller, PhD, Published bimonthly, beginning in January
Developmental Psychology publishes articles that advance knowledge and theory about human development across the life span. Although most papers address directly the issues of human development, studies of other species are appropriate if they have important implications for human development.

The journal includes significant empirical contributions to the study of growth and development and, occasionally, scholarly reviews, theoretical articles, and social policy papers. Studies of any variables that affect human psychological development are considered.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - The journal is divided into three independently edited sections:
ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION addresses those domains of social behavior in which cognition plays a major role, including the interface of cognition with overt behavior, affect, and motivation.

Courses Related to Social Psychology

Personality Psychology Courses -

INSTRUCTOR: Luis A.Vega, Ph.D.

COURSE DESCRIPTION: As defined in the university catalog, this course covers:
An exploration of theory and research concerning the individual in a social context. Selected topics will be considered in detail, with emphasis on contemporary issues in social psychology. Prerequisites: Psychology or Sociology 312 (or any social psychology course taken at another university) and consent of instructor. Carries credit in either Psychology or Sociology.

COURSE OBJECTIVES: Social psychology is the scientific study of humankind as social beings. The social psychologist is interested in how individuals think about others, influence and are influenced by others, and how they interact with others. The course s designed to give you a detailed overview of the major topics currently important in the discipline, as well as some of the history and methodology that form the basis of our present understanding. This course has as its cornerstone the scientific method and the use of empirical research as the means of understanding social behavior.

In addition, our emphases in this course will be threefold: First, we will review twelve areas of social psychology by reading original journal articles and by emphasizing general, classic, and contemporary selections.

Second, with social psychology becoming more cognitive in orientation, we will critically analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. As we shall see, a cognitive orientation, while important, leaves many gaps in our understanding of social behavior.

Finally, we will review social psychological findings from a cross-cultural perspective. With over 70% of the major work in "psychological" social psychology being produced in North America, we will see that many findings may not be as universal as we once thought (not surprising given that most subjects for social psychological experiments were U.S. college sophomores).

Theoretical. Pick an area of social psychology that appeals to you and write a 10-15 page paper chronicling the theoretical development of that area. This means that you will need to read the classic studies, specify how theory has played an important role in the development of that area, and summarize the types of questions that can be answered (as well as those that cannot), given the current status of that area. As a frame of reference for the steps you will need to take in writing this paper, I suggest you read the Personality and Social Psychology Review or the Psychological Review journals, both of which publish theoretical papers. You may also want to read the guidelines for writing theoretical papers provided in the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (4th ed.). If more help is needed in writing this paper, I will set time in class for this purpose. You will need at least 15 references (75 points). A proposal for this paper is due on September 28th, with the final paper due on October 21st.

Applications. Pick an area of social psychology that appeals to you and write a 15-20 page paper that applies social psychological principles to a problem area (the topic for this paper can be the same area you picked for your theoretical paper). You will need a minimum of 20 references for this paper. Some possible topics you may want to consider, but should not feel limited to:

Stopping gang violence using social psychological principles
Reducing discrimination using social psychological principles
Reducing school dropout rates using social psychological principles
Reducing domestic violence using social psychological principles
Using social psychology to influence public policy
Resisting the appeal of propaganda (e.g., tv commercials)
Exploring the role of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors in advertising

Social Psychology - PSY 350 - Department of Psychology at Western Kentucky University
Instructor: Dr. S. Pack, Ph.D. Mission: From the WKU Department of Psychology Mission Statement:
“The primary mission of the Department of Psychology at Western Kentucky University is to provide our students with a strong education in the theoretical, scientific, and applied study of psychology. To this end we seek to:
Provide our undergraduate majors with knowledge of psychology as an art, a science, and a profession.
Provide students enrolled in programs throughout the university with a basic understanding of psychology.
A second component of our mission is to contribute to the advancement of psychology and psychological knowledge.
A final component of our mission is to improve the lives of others through the application of knowledge and expertise in psychology.
In all our endeavors we are committed to the values we share as psychologists, especially our respect for the welfare and dignity of all people. We value and appreciate the diversity of the students we teach, the public we serve, and the colleagues with whom we work (and the technology with which we do all things).”
Course Description
From the University catalog: A general introduction to social psychology for majors and non-majors in psychology.
Emphasis is given to the psychological components of common social behaviors including the psychological aspects of contemporary social problems. 3 hours; can be used to help meet General Education requirement section C;
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing
A description that might actually mean something to students: Social psychology is the scientific study of how we interact with, think about and influence other people. It includes such topics as group processes, prejudice, love, and persuasion. Social psychology is similar to sociology in the topics it covers, however, social psychology looks more specifically at individual or personal explanations, whereas sociology looks at cultural explanations.
Required Materials
Social Psychology, 10th edition by Robert Baron & Donn Byrne

SO/PY 442 Social Psychology
University of North Alabama - Department of Sociology
Professor: S. Alexander Takeuchi, Ph.D. (aka "Dr. T")
Social Psychology is the scientific study of the nature, causes and the consequences of human social cognition and behavior. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that is rooted in both psychology and sociology. In this course, you will be exposed to fundamental theories and concepts of social psychology from the sociological and psychological traditions as well as the applications of those theories and concepts to different social issues.
The goal of this course is to enable you to better understand ourselves and our social behavior from a social psychology point of view while dealing with common social issues in our everyday life.
Michener, H. A. and DeLamater, J. D. (2004). Social Psychology (5th Ed.). Harcourt Brace. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 5th Edition.

Social Psychology - Bibliography

Social Psychology of Organizational Behavior: Key Readings Book by Leigh L. Thompson

The Social Psychology of Behavior in Small Groups Book by Donald C. Pennington

The Social Mind : Cognitive and Motivational Aspects of Interpersonal Behavior - Book by Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, Ladd Wheeler (Editors)

A Three-Dimensional Model of Human Behavior Book by Michael Pak.

Korn, J. H. (1997). Illusions of reality: A history of deception in social psychology. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press.

Lesko, W. A. (1997). Readings in social psychology: General, classic, and contemporary selections (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Plous, S. (1993). The psychology of judgment and decision making. New York: McGraw Hill.

Smith, P. B., & Bond, M. H. (1999). Social psychology across cultures: Analysis and perspectives (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Anderson, C. A., Benjamin, A. J., Bartholow, B. D. (1998). Does the gun pull the trigger? Automatic priming effects of weapon pictures and weapon names. Psychological Science.

Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Validzic, A. (1998). Intergroup bias: Status, differentiation, and a common in-group identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 109-120.

Haney, C., & Zimbardo, P. (1998). The past and future of U.S. prison policy: Twenty-five years after the Stanford Prison experiment. American Psychologist, 53, 709-727.

Kerr, N. L. (1998). HARKing: Hypothesizing after the results are known. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 196-217.

Mays, V. M., Bullock, M., Rosenzweig, M R., & Wessells, M. (1998). Ethnic conflict: Global challenges and psychological perspectives. American Psychologist, 53, 737-742.

Mischel, W. (1998). Metacognition at the hyphen of social-cognitive psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 84-86.

Rubin, M., & Hewstone, M. (1998). Social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis: A review and some suggestions for clarification. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 40-62.

Tassinary, L. G., & Hansen, K. A. (1998). A critical test of the waist-to-hip-ratio hypothesis of female physical attractiveness. Psychological Science, 9, 150-155.

Taylor, S. E. (1998). The social being in social psychology. In Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T., & Lindzey, G. (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1), pp. 58-95. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Social Psychology, 10th edition by Robert Baron & Donn Byrne.

Ajzen, Icek. 1988. Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Dorsey Press.

Allport, Gordon W. 1968. The Person in Psychology: Selected Essays. Beacon Press.

Asch, Solomon E. 1955. "Opinions and Social Pressure." Scientific American 193:31-5.

Bales, Robert Freed. 1950. Interaction Process Analysis: A Method for the Study of Small Groups. Addison-Wesley.

Bandura, Albert. 1977. "Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change." Psychological Review 84:191-215.

Brim, Orville G., Jr. 1976. "Socialization in Later Life." Pp. 105-16 in Current Perspectives in Social Psychology. 4th ed., edited by Edwin P. Hollander and Raymond G. Hunt. Oxford University Press.

Callero, Peter L. 1985. "Role-Identity Salience." Social Psychology Quarterly 48:203-14.

Campos, Joseph J., Rosemary G. Campos, and Karen C. Barrett. 1989. "Emergent Themes in the Study of Emotional Development and Emotion Regulation." Developmental Psychology 25:394-402.

Carnevale, Peter J., and Dean G. Pruitt. 1992. "Negotiation and Mediation." Annual Review of Psychology 43:531-82.

Cartwright, Dorwin. 1968. "The Nature of Group Cohesiveness." Pp. 91-109 in Group Dynamics: Research and Theory. 3d ed., edited by D. Cartwright and A. Zander. Harper & Row.

Chlopan, Bruce E., Marianne L. McCain, Joyce L. Carbonell, and Richard L. Hagen. 1985. "Empathy: Review of Available Measures." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48:635-53.

Cook, Karen S., Gary Alan Fine, and James S. House (eds.). 1995. Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. Allyn & Bacon.

Crosby, Faye J. 1982. Relative Deprivation and Working Women. Oxford University Press.

Deaux, Kay. 1991. "Social Identities: Thoughts on Structure and Change." Pp. 77-93 in The Relational Self: Convergences of Psychoanalysis and Social Psychology, edited by Rebecca C. Curtis. Guilford Press.

Ekman, Paul. 1984. "Expression and the Nature of Emotion." Pp. 319-43 in Approaches to Emotion, edited by Klaus Scherer and Paul Ekman. Erlbaum.

Ethier, Kathleen A., and Kay Deaux. 1994. "Negotiating Social Identity when Contexts Change: Maintaining Identification and Responding to Threat." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67:243-51.

Festinger, Leon. 1954. "A Theory of Social Comparison Processes." Human Relations 7:117-40.

Folkman, Susan, and Richard S. Lazarus. 1985. "If It Changes It Must Be a Process: Study of Emotion and Coping during Three Stages of a College Examination." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48:150-70.

Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Harvard University Press.

Goffman, Erving. 1956. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. University of Edinburgh.

Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Prentice-Hall.

Heise, David R. 1987. "Affect Control Theory: Concepts and Model." Journal of Mathematical Sociology 13:1-33.

Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 1983. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. University of California Press.

House, James S. 1977. "The Three Faces of Social Psychology." Sociometry 40:161-77.

Isenberg, Daniel J. 1986. "Group Polarization: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50:1141-51.

Janis, Irving Lester. 1982. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. Houghton Mifflin.

Jones, Edward E., Amerigo Farina, Albert H. Hastorf, Hazel Markus, Dale T. Miller, and Robert A. Scott. 1984. Social Stigma: The Psychology of Marked Relationships. W.H. Freeman.

Kaplan, Paula J., and Jack Arbuthnot. 1985. "Affective Empathy and Cognitive Role-Taking in Delinquent and Nondelinquent Youth." Adolescence 20:323-33.

Kessler, Ronald C., and Jane D. McLeod. 1984. "Sex Differences in Vulnerability to Undesirable Life Events." American Sociological Review 49:620-31.

Kohn, Melvin L. 1969. Class and Conformity: A Study in Values. Dorsey.

Latane, Bibb, and John M. Darley. 1970. The Unresponsive Bystander: Why Doesn't He Help? Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Lazarus, Richard S. 1991. "Progress on a Cognitive-Motivational-Relational Theory of Emotion." American Psychologist 46:819-34.

Linville, Patricia W., and Donal E. Carlston. 1994. "Social Cognition of the Self." Pp. 143-93 in Social Cognition: Its Impact on Social Psychology, edited by Patricia G. Devine, David L. Hamilton, and Thomas M. Ostrom. Academic.

Markus, Hazel, M. Crane, S. Bernstein, and M. Siladi. 1982. "Self-Schemas and Gender." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42-38-50.

Merton, Robert K. 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. Free Press.

Milgram, Stanley. 1969. Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. Harper & Row.

Miller, Dale T., and William Turnbull. 1986. "Expectancies and Interpersonal Processes." Annual Review of Psychology 37:233-56.

Ortony, Andrew, and Gerald L. Clore. 1988. The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press.

Pearlin, Leonard I. 1989. "The Sociological Study of Stress." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 30:241-56.

Robins, Clive J. 1988. "Attributions and Depression: Why Is the Literature So Inconsistent?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:880-89.

Rosenberg, Morris. 1979. Conceiving the Self. Basic Books.

Rosenthal, Robert. 1966. Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research. Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Rosenthal, Robert, and Lenore Jacobson. 1968. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectations and Pupils' Intellectual Development. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Rotter, Julian B. 1966. Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement. American Psychological Association.

Schachter, Stanley, and Jerome E. Singer. 1962. "Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State." Psychological Review 69:379-99.

Scheff, Thomas J. 1988. "Shame and Conformity: The Deference-Emotion System." American Sociological Review 53:395-406.

Schwarzer, Ralf (ed.). 1992. Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action. Hemisphere Publishing.

Sherif, Muzafer, O.J. Harvey, B. Jack White, William R. Hood, and Carolyn W. Sherif. [1961] 1988. The Robbers Cave Experiment: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation. Wesleyan University Press.

Shott, Susan. 1979. "Emotion and Social Life: A Symbolic Interactionist Analysis." American Journal of Sociology 84:1317-34.

Smith, Allen C., III, and Sherryl Kleinman. 1989. "Managing Emotions in Medical School: Students' Contacts with the Living and the Dead." Social Psychology Quarterly 52:56-69.

Strodtbeck, Fred L., Rita M. James, and Charles Hawkins. 1957. "Social Status in Jury Deliberations." American Sociological Review 22:713-19.

Stryker, Sheldon. 1977. "Developments in 'Two Social Psychologies': Toward an Appreciation of Mutual Relevance." Sociometry 40:145-60.

Stryker, Sheldon, and Richard T. Serpe. 1994. "Identity Salience and Psychological Centrality: Equivalent, Overlapping, or Complementary Concepts?" Social Psychology Quarterly 57:16-35.

Suls, Jerry, and Thomas Ashby Wills. 1991. Social Comparison: Contemporary Theory and Research. Erlbaum.

Swann, William B., Jr., John J. Griffin Jr., Steven C. Predmore, and Bebe Gaines. 1987. "The Cognitive-Affective Crossfire: When Self-Consistency Confronts Self-Enhancement." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52:881-89.

Tajfel, Henri, and John C. Turner. 1986. "The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior." Pp. 7-24 in Psychology of Intergroup Relations. 2d ed., edited by Stephen Worchel and William G. Austin. Nelson-Hall.

Taylor, Shelley E., Bram P. Buunk, and Lisa G. Aspinwall. 1990. "Social Comparison, Stress, and Coping. Special Issue: Illustrating the Value of Basic Research." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 16:74-89.

Whyte, William Foote. 1981. Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. 3d ed. University of Chicago Press.

Wortman, Camille B., and Darrin R. Lehman. 1985. 'Reactions to Victims of Life Crises: Support Attempts that Fail'. Pp. 463-89 in Social Support: Theory, Research, and Applications, edited by Irwin G. Sarason and Barbara R. Sarason. Martinus Nijhoff.