Sociology Index E-Books

SHIFTING AGRICULTURE

Shifting Agriculture is a system in which land is cleared and then cultivated until it is exhausted, at which point new land is cleared and the process restarted. Shifting Agriculture is shifting cultivation or forms of agriculture in which an area of ground is cleared of vegetation and cultivated for a small number of years and then abandoned for a new area.

Human-environmental influences and interactions in shifting agriculture when farmers form expectations rationally - D W Jones, R V O'Neill - Environment and Planning A 25(1) 121–136. Abstract. This paper contains a study of the response of shifting agriculture to several social and environmental changes in circumstances in which farmers form in a relatively sophisticated manner their expectations of the future values of key economic variables. Farmers are 'given' a model of expectations formation in which the expected future value of variables interact in the same manner as in the current period.

With this structure of expectations, the responses of the length of fallow period (the inverse of the percentage of available land cultivated in the initial period), the total area of land under cultivation and lying fallow in the initial period of a rotational cycle, and the initial-period wage rate and spatial structure of land rent to changes in several social and environmental parameters are examined. Several salient characteristics commonly attributed to shifting, or rotational, agriculture are replicated. Higher crop prices and increased population shorten fallow periods. Those same changes also increase the total area of land under shifting agriculture.

Shifting agriculture and sustainable development: an interdisciplinary study from north-eastern India. - Ramakrishnan, P. S.
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
Abstract: This book presents a wide ranging synthesis of a long-term ecological study of shifting cultivation in upland NE India (Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh), supported by India-MAB, the Department of Environment and Forests, the Department of Science and Technology, the University Grants Commission and other national institutions. The first section, Agroecosystem and village ecosystem function, has 5 chapters addressing: (1) cropping yield patterns and energy budgets under shifting cultivation; (2) the ecological and economic efficiencies of other land use systems (valley systems, home gardens, cash crop systems, fallow and sedentary systems, and terrace systems); (3) village ecosystem function in traditional societies; (4) weed potential and management in shifting cultivation and other systems; and (5) soil fertility and nutrient budgets under shifting cultivation and other systems. The second section, Secondary successional patterns and processes, has 4 chapters covering: (1) vegetation dynamics and (2) nutrient cycling in shifting cultivation fallows; (3) early successional weeds and their strategies; and (4) shrub and tree growth strategies and architecture. The last section, Management implications, has 2 chapters on: (1) shifting cultivation and rain forest ecosystem redevelopment; and (2) conservation linked to sustainable development. A subject index is included.

Impacts of shifting agriculture on a floodplain woodland regeneration in dryland, Kenya
G. Oba, Noragric, N. C. Stensethb and R. B. Weladjic, Centre for International Environment and Development Studies, The Agricultural University of Norway
Abstract: Perceptions on the role played by shifting agriculture on ecosystems integrity at the landscape scale are divided between those proposing loss of biodiversity and habitat fragmentation and those suggesting improvement of ecosystem diversity. The sorghum farming cycles through woodland regeneration was closely associated with forest landscapes that were used for livestock browsing. The study shows the positive role played by shifting agriculture in forest regeneration, implying that farming promoted ecosystem diversity.

Sustainability Appraisal of Shifting Cultivation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh
Ole K. Borggaard, Abdul Gafur, Leif Petersen, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 32(2): 2003
Abstract: An integrated socioeconomic and erosion study on the sustainability of traditional shifting cultivation (Jhum) carried out in 1998 and 1999 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh showed the system to be nonsustainable under the current conditions with fallow periods of only 3–5 years and lack of land rights.

SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SHIFTING AGRICULTURE OF THE WHITE MEO
George A. Binney; WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT INST WASHINGTON DC
Abstract: The particular communities which are discussed in this paper are located in the Hong Dong and Chom Thong districts of Chiengmai Province. In this region, settlements of more than 40 households are rare, and the hamlets, located on mountain ridges, average 7 to 35 households.