Sociology Index

Sexual Stratification

Sexual stratification is differences of positions of men and women in the work setting and the ranking of people in a society according to sex. There is a popular view that feminism is a theory of sexual stratification and gender difference. "These differences combined with physical differences are an adaption representing sexual division of labor." The entering of women into specific occupations suggests that less competent workers have begun to be hired or that the occupation, and there is increasing deskilling through sexual stratification and devaluation of human capital.

The sexual stratification hypothesis suggests that criminal justice responses to sexual victimization will differ depending on the victim/suspect racial/ethnic dyad. Rooted in a certain type of family system operating in a certain type of economic environment, patterns of sexual stratification are found in Taiwan, throughout East Asia, from Hong Kong to Japan, South Korea, and the People's Republic of China.

The sexual stratification hypothesis revisited: Testing assumptions about simple versus aggravated rape. Katharine M. Tellis, Cassia Spohn. Abstract: Previous research testing the sexual stratification hypothesis has included only African American and White victims and suspects. This study also included Hispanic victims and suspects.

The Sexual Stratification Hypothesis: Is the Decision to Arrest Influenced by the Victim/Suspect Racial/Ethnic Dyad? Eryn Nicole O'Neal, Laura O Beckman, Cassia Spohn. J Interpers Violence. 2016 May 24;34(6). Abstract: Previous research examining the sexual stratification hypothesis has primarily focused on court processes, and the small body of literature examining arrest decisions is dated. There remains substantial opportunity for testing the sexual stratification hypothesis at response stages apart from the court level.

Sexual Stratification: A Cross-Cultural View - Alice Schlegel (Editor).
The assumption of universal male dominance is called into question in Sexual Stratification, which presents empirical evidence for its absence. Stratification is examined empirically in both traditional and modern societies and theoretically in terms of power and autonomy in economic and social structures. An assessment is made of the role ideology plays in establishing norms for sex roles and statuses.

Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital - John Levi Martin, Matt George - The American tradition of action theory failed to produce a useful theory of the possible existence of trans-individual consistencies in sexual desirability. Instead, most sociological theorists have relied on market metaphors to account for the logic of sexual action.

Sexual Stratification: Differences in Power in the Work Setting.
First, the notion of power in the work setting and its relevance to stratification research are discussed. How this conceptualization helps in the understanding of sex differences in job positions is then sketched. Finally, the usefulness of these concepts in clarifying the similarities and differences of positions of men and women in the work setting are demonstrated empirically. The empirical analysis tests whether men and women have differing amounts of authority and autonomy holding constant other relevant variables. These variables include occupational status, education, and self employment. The analysis indicates that sex has a main effect on occupational status level, holding constant the main effects of other variables. It was demonstrated that women are less likely to be in supervisory positions than men.

Sexual Stratification: The Other Side of "Growth with Equity" in East Asia - Susan Greenhalgh.
Abstract: In recent decades East Asian countries have achieved remarkable levels of economic growth and interfamilial equality. These gains, however, may have been won at the cost of high or rising inequality between the sexes. Using microlevel, longitudinal data from Taiwan, the paper documents growing inequality between sons and daughters with respect to four socioeconomic resources - education, occupation, income, property - and three areas of personal autonomy - job selection, residence, and control over income.

Feminism as a Theory of Sexual Stratification and Gender Difference - Onyekachi Wisdom Duru. Abstract: Feminism plays an important role in the emancipation and empowerment of women. Women rights, women empowerment, and women liberation constitute the circle of feminism. At any stage of the circle of feminism, something could go wrong leading to the failure of the feminist struggle. Contemporary feminist struggles have proven to be very complex and competitive, hence the need for a pragmatic approach to feminism. An analysis of feminism as theory of sexual stratification and gender difference is the focus of this paper. In other words, the paper reviews theoretically the view that feminism is a theory of sexual stratification and gender difference. The paper contends that variations of feminism are multi-dimension, transnational and multifaceted; hence gender difference and sexual stratification are only variants of a multi-dimensional whole.

Sexual Stratification: A Cross-Cultural View Mass Market. 1977. By Alice Schlegel.
The assumption of universal male dominance is called into question in Sexual Stratification, which presents empirical evidence for its absence. These fourteen original papers, plus an introduction and overview by the author, are case studies that include societies where male dominance predominates, such as Sicily, societies in which dominance is qualified, such as the Yoruba, and more egalitarian societies, such as the Bontoc and the Israeli kibbutz.

The effect of sexual stratification by race on arrest in sexual battery cases
Howard P. Myers. American Journal of Criminal Justice volume 9, pages172–184(1985).
Abstract: LaFree finds that in most respects officials react more seriously to black assailants who assault white victims than other suspects. Yet paradoxically black assailants who assault white victims are not more likely to be arrested. He explains this apparent inconsistency by proposing that place of incarceration or length of sentence have to do with the seriousness of the offense, whereas arrest has to do with whether the assailant is guilty or innocent. This paper rejects that distinction, arguing that both involve judgments that reflect the influence of similar factors.

The sexual stratification of social control: a gender-based perspective on crime and delinquency. Hagan J, Simpson JH, Gillis AR.