The biological classification of individuals as males and females. Sociologists would note, however, that even though sex is a classification based on biological differences sex is a socially constructed classification.
Sex typing refers to stereotypes of the sexes and the consequent actions of characterizing men and women on the basis these stereotypes. For example, women are mediators and men are competitive; boys prefer trucks while girls prefer dolls.
Sexism is actions or attitudes that discriminate against people based solely on their gender.
Sexism is linked to power in that those with power are typically treated with favour and those without power are typically discriminated against.
Sexism is also related to stereotypes since the discriminatory actions or attitudes are frequently based on false beliefs or over generalizations about gender and on seeing gender as relevant when it is not.
Gender gap is the gap between the political party preferences of men and women. The political party preferences of men and women are gender specific.