Self-actualization is a term that has been used in
various psychology theories of Goldstein, Maslow and Rogers. According to hierarchy of needs Maslow's theory, people
have lower order needs that in general must be fulfilled before high order needs can be
satisfied. As a person moves up Maslow's hierarchy of needs, eventually they will reach
the summit, self-actualization.
Self-actualization theory was originally introduced by
the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize one's full potential.
Self-actualization theory was brought to prominence in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs
According to Maslow self-actualised person
"possesses an unusual ability to detect the spurious, the fake, the dishonest in
Self-actualization is the tendency to actualize, as much
as possible, individual capacities" in the world.
Kurt Goldstein defined self-actualization as a driving
life force that will ultimately lead to maximizing one's abilities and determine the path
of one's life; compare will to power.
The Failure of Self-Actualization Theory
- A Critique of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Leonard Geller, Journal of Humanistic Psychology January 1, 2008 48: 116-135
This inquiry critically examines the self-actualization theories of Carl Rogers and
Abraham Maslow. I attempt to establish the general presumption that self-actualization
theory as such has very little to offer toward understanding and improving the human
The Myth of Self-Actualization - Michael Daniels
Section of Psychology, Liverpool Polytechnic, Journal of Humanistic Psychology January 1,
Abstract: I argue that the primary function of a theory of self-actualization is to
establish a myth of human development that provides conceptual support for people seeking
fulfillment and offers clear normative guidance. There are ambiguities and contradictions
in the self-actualization theory.
Self-Actualization in the Corporate Hierarchy
North American Journal of Psychology, 2006 by John M. Mahoney, Hester L. Dorer
The level of self-actualizing was correlated to job satisfaction regardless of the
hierarchical level, and level of actualizing was correlated to type of work environment.
Compatibility of self-actualization and anxiety
- Orin Dodez, Paul F. Zelhart, Robert P. Markley
Journal of Clinical Psychology, Volume 38, Issue 4, pages 696702, October 1982
That anxiety appears to be the dynamic of self-actualization. The current study further
examined the empirical and conceptual relation between anxiety and self-actualization.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION TO SOCIAL SUPPORT, LIFE STRESS, AND
ADJUSTMENT - Ford, Gary G.; Procidano, Mary E. Social Behavior and Personality:
an international journal, Volume 18, Number 1, 1990.
The previously unexplored relationship of self-actualization to life stress and perceived
social support from family and from friends was investigated. Significant sex differences
discovered in the relationship of self-actualization to perceived social support are
discussed in terms of possible sex differences in the developmental process of
A cognitive-systemic reconstruction of maslow's theory of self-actualization,
Francis Heylighen, Behavioral Science, Volume 37, Issue 1, pages 3958, January 1992
Maslow's need hierarchy and model of the self-actualizing personality are reviewed and
criticized. The definition of self-actualization is found to be confusing, and the
gratification of all needs is concluded to be insufficient to explain self-actualization.
A hierarchy of basic needs is derived from the urgency of
perturbations which an autonomous system must compensate in order to maintain its
identity. Self-actualization is redefined as the perceived competence to satisfy these
basic needs in due time.
Effects of defensiveness and self-actualization on a Herzberg replication
John Paul Szura1 and Mary E. Vermillion, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA
Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 7, Issue 2, October 1975, Pages 181-187
Two hundred workers were tested for self-actualization. Results indicated that
self-actualization is related to the attribution of satisfaction to both motivators and