Sociology Index

STAY IN THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS

SECULARIZATION, SECULARITY AND SECULARISM

Secularization is the process of organizing society or aspects of social life around non-religious values or principles. Secularization is linked closely to Max Weber's concept of disenchantment of the world as the sphere of the magical, sacred and religious retreats before the driving force of rationalization of culture and social institutions powered by emergent capitalism. It is customary in sociology and the political sciences to distinguish three large types of macro-theory on secularization, secularity, and secularism, namely secularization theory, individualization theory, and market theory. Secularization is a process which does lead to exclusion. Secularism is based on values, and action that is independent of religious authority. During secularization, all institutions, economic, political, and social, are seperated from the control of religion. Secularization is the separation of church and state.

Sociologists and Secularization: Controversy about the process of secularization has consituted the centrepiece of the sociology of religion. The explication of the terms in which the secularization controversy has developed among sociologists and sociologically-inclined theologians. The secularization paradigm in the social sciences led many scholars to presume that religious organizations no longer had a public role in society. With the Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India enacted in 1976, the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a secular nation. Secularism has slowly found its way back into the public discourse as a constitutional value worth fighting for.

Enforced Secularization - Spontaneous Revival? Religious Belief, Unbelief, Uncertainty and Indifference in East and West European Countries 1991–1998 Secularization. - Heiner Meulemann. If the enforced form of secularization of East European countries has the same effects even if the degree of secularization is controlled, and if these are reversed after the demise of communism. The degree and the form of secularization affect the answers to the religious question. Rational Choice Theory and Secularization Theory are used to analyse data on Catholics West European and Central European countries in the frame of the Religious and Moral Pluralism study.

Secularization of Public Administration - Thomas D. Lynch, Richard Omdal and Peter L. Cruise. The history of values in public administration research and question of secularization with its removal of linkage between spiritual wisdom and public values.

Secularization, Deviance and Delinquency among Israeli Arab Villagers 
S. Giora Shoham, Esther Segal, Giora Rahav. There is the process of rapid modernization which involves secularization, disorganization of traditional social structure and changing norms.

‘Losing my religion’: a dynamic analysis of leaving the church in the Netherlands - Ariana Need and Nan Dirk De Graaf. Cohort and period effects of secularization on the risk of leaving a faith, using life-event data from the Dutch Family Survey. The results suggest the current level of secularization increases the risk of becoming unchurched.

DYNAMICS OF THE RELIGIOUS ECONOMY 
EXIT, VOICE AND DENOMINATIONAL SECULARIZATION
 
James D. Montgomery. If individuals remain within their parents' denominations, intergenerationall social mobilityymay alter denominational class composition.

State Welfare Spending and Religiosity - A Cross-National Analysis  
Anthony Gill. What accounts for cross-national variation inn religiosityyas measured by church attendance and non-religious rates? Examining answers from both secularization theory and the religious economy perspective.

Education and Secularization: Taking Philosophy of Education Seriously - E.P. Brandon.

aracelsus Confronts the Saints: Miracles, Healing and the Secularization of Magicc - CHARLES WEBSTER.

Medicalization and Secularization: the Jewish Ritual Bath as a Problem of Hygiene (Germany 1820s–1840s).
The new role assigned to religion can be seen as part of a process of ‘secularization’. Medicalization and secularization were different aspects of the same process.

The Roman Catholic Church and the Immigration Issue  
The Relative Secularization of Political Life in Spain.
The relative secularization of immigration-related politics in Spain and Southern Europe. Catholic activism indicates the withdrawal of the church as a social institution has not signified the demise of its influence.

Islam and Secularizationn - Zubaida, Samii. The dichotomy of the religious and the secular emerged within popularized fundamentalism which has to be seen as a fruit of the secularization process..

EYOND UNBELIEF  - eulemann H., University of Cologne. The secularization hypothesis is confirmed for both beliefs on the aggregate as well as the individual level of analysis. The modified secularization hypothesis are conformed for the belief in God only..

Secularization and Aging in Britain: Does Family Formation Cause Greater Religiosity? - James R. Tilley, Nuffield College, Oxford.

Secularization and Tolerancee
Giorgio Spini, University of Florence. Abstract: The author analyzes the relationship between the decline of religions and tolerance.

SOCIAL CHANGE AND RELIGION: THINKING BEYOND SECULARIZATION..
Charles L. Harper. For those expecting its attenuation to accompanyy modernizationn, religion remains vibrant and socially salient. It is in parts of Western Europe that the secularization thesis seems to work the best.

Secularization, Religiosity, and the United States Constitution  
Christopher L. Eisgruber. What sort of evidence exists that the United States has been secularized.

The Secularization of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Mike Nicol's The Ibis Tapestry  
Michael Titlestad, Mike Kissack. The novel unravels aspects of the ethical ideology and epistemological framing of the Commission in a way that amounts to its secularization.

Is there a Place for the Sacred in Organizations and their Developmentt 
Rajen K. Gupta, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow . Secularization of life is widely seen as a direct consequence of European enlightenment and the process of modernization. Thesis of societal secularization through analysis of ideas in the Anglo-Saxon Christian areas.

Secularization in a strong religious society: the case of Turkey - Tahirli, Taleh. That Islam and secularization is incompatible. Thee problematiccrelationship between religion and democracy still shows itself intensively. The application of concept “secularization” to studies of the Muslim countries in the Middle East has been problematic than enlightening.

Is Secularization a Discontinuous Process?  
Daniel Rigney, Richard Machalek, Jerry D. Goodman. Undertakes ann empirical evidenceeassessment of the discontinuity thesis. It is not clear that secularization has been discontinuous during this century.

The Catholic Bishops Conferences of the United States and France - Engaging Immigration as a Public IssueThe Catholic Bishops Conferences of the United States and France - Engaging Immigration as a Public Issue - Margarita Mooney.

Secularization and the Role of Religion in State Institutions - Inger Furseth. The role of the Church of Norway in military and prison chaplaincies is a clear illustration of the continuing intertwining of religion and state in Norway.

Church attendance in Spain (1930-1992): Gender differences and secularization. - Pablo Branas.

Is Northern Ireland Abnormal? An Extension of the Sociological Debate on Religion in Modern Britain 
Claire Mitchell, Measures secularization along Casanova’s three dimension, religious differentiation, decline and privatization. It finds that Northern Ireland has high levels of religious differentiation and little convinced secularism.

The Case Secularization: A Rebuttal
FRANK J. LECHNER, Emory University. There is a reasonably solid body of secularization theory with valid historical content. Secularization theory remains a valuable part of the theoretical arsenal of the sociology of religion. 

Secularization as Declining Religious Authority
MARK CHAVES, The University of Notre Dame. Draws on and develops what is best in the secularization literature. 

Religious Advocacy in Secular Society: A Neo-Secularization Perspective - David Yamane.

Secularization Troubles: The Sociology of Liberal Protestantism - Christopher Hinkle, Harvard Divinity School. Contemporary resistance among both sociologists and theologians reflects an intellectual differentiation associated with secularization.

The Great Secularization Experiment: An Analysis of Communism's Attempt to Eliminate Religion - Froese, P.

The Religious and the Secular: Studies in Secularization by David Martin - Suzanne Gwiazda, Church History, Vol. 39, No. 2.