Sociology Index

SECULARIZATION

Secularization is the process of organizing society or aspects of social life around non-religious values or principles. Secularization is linked closely to Max Weber's concept of disenchantment of the world as the sphere of the magical, sacred and religious retreats before the driving force of rationalization of culture and social institutions powered by emergent capitalism.

Sociologists and Secularization: Controversy about the process of secularization has consituted the centrepiece of the sociology of religion. The explication of the terms in which the secularization controversy has developed among sociologists and sociologically-inclined theologians. The secularization paradigm in the social sciences led many scholars to presume that religious organizations no longer had a public role in society.

Enforced Secularization - Spontaneous Revival? Religious Belief, Unbelief, Uncertainty and Indifference in East and West European Countries 1991–1998 Secularization. - Heiner Meulemann - Universität zu Köln, European Sociological Review. If the enforced form of secularization of East European countries has the same effects even if the degree of secularization is controlled, and if these are reversed after the demise of communism. The degree and the form of secularization affect the answers to the religious question.

Education and Secularization: Taking Philosophy of Education Seriously - E.P. Brandon
Caribbean Journal of Education, 19, 227-238 (1997) Secularization.

Secularization of Public Administration - Thomas D. Lynch, Richard Omdal and Peter L. Cruise 
Louisiana State University, Golden Gate University 
The history of values in public administration research and question of secularization with its removal of linkage between spiritual wisdom and public values.

The Catholic Bishops Conferences of the United States and France - Engaging Immigration as a Public Issue 
Margarita Mooney, Princeton University - American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 49, No. 11, (2006)

Secularization and the Role of Religion in State Institutions - Inger Furseth 
Social Compass, Vol. 50, No. 2, 191-202 (2003)
The role of the Church of Norway in military and prison chaplaincies is a clear illustration of the continuing intertwining of religion and state in Norway.

Church attendance in Spain (1930-1992): Gender differences and secularization
Pablo Branas - Garza University of Jaen IESA-CSIC, Spain.

Is Northern Ireland Abnormal? An Extension of the Sociological Debate on Religion in Modern Britain 
Claire Mitchell, Queen’s University Belfast - Sociology, Vol. 38, No. 2, (2004)
Measures secularization along Casanova’s three dimension, religious differentiation, decline and privatization. It finds that Northern Ireland has high levels of religious differentiation and little convinced secularism.

Secularization, Deviance and Delinquency among Israeli Arab Villagers 
S. Giora Shoham, Esther Segal, Giora Rahav 
Human Relations, Vol. 28, No. 7, 661-674 (1975)
There is the process of rapid modernization which involves secularization, disorganization of traditional social structure and changing norms.

‘Losing my religion’: a dynamic analysis of leaving the church in the Netherlands 
Ariana Need and Nan Dirk De Graaf - European Sociological Review 12:87-99 1996
Cohort and period effects of secularization on the risk of leaving a faith, using life-event data from the Dutch Family Survey. The results suggest the current level of secularization increases the risk of becoming unchurched.

DYNAMICS OF THE RELIGIOUS ECONOMY 
EXIT, VOICE AND DENOMINATIONAL SECULARIZATION
 
James D. Montgomery - Rationality and Society, Vol. 8, No. 1, 81-110 (1996)
If individuals remain within their parents' denominations, intergenerational social mobility may alter denominational class composition.

State Welfare Spending and Religiosity - A Cross-National Analysis 
Anthony Gill, Rationality and Society, Vol. 16, No. 4, 399-436 (2004)
What accounts for cross-national variation in religiosity as measured by church attendance and non-religious rates? Examining answers from both secularization theory and the religious economy perspective.

Paracelsus Confronts the Saints: Miracles, Healing and the Secularization of Magic 
CHARLES WEBSTER, All Souls College Oxford - Social History of Medicine 1995 8(3).

Medicalization and Secularization: the Jewish Ritual Bath as a Problem of Hygiene (Germany 1820s–1840s) 
THOMAS SCHLICH, Institut für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung Straussweg
Social History of Medicine 1995 8(3):423-442
The new role assigned to religion can be seen as part of a process of ‘secularization’. Medicalization and secularization were different aspects of the same process.

The Roman Catholic Church and the Immigration Issue 
The Relative Secularization of Political Life in Spain 

Xabier Itçaina, CERVL-CNRS, Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Bordeaux, France 
American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 49, No. 11, 1471-1488 (2006)
The relative secularization of immigration-related politics in Spain and Southern Europe. Catholic activism indicates the withdrawal of the church as a social institution has not signified the demise of its influence.

Islam and Secularization 
Zubaida, Sami
Source: Asian Journal of Social Science, Volume 33, Number 3, 2005, pp. 438-448(11)
The dichotomy of the religious and the secular emerged within popularized fundamentalism which has to be seen as a fruit of the secularization process.

BEYOND UNBELIEF 
Meulemann H., University of Cologne - European Societies, Volume 2, Number 2, June 2000.
The secularization hypothesis is confirmed for both beliefs on the aggregate as well as the individual level of analysis. The modified secularization hypothesis are conformed for the belief in God only.

Secularization and Aging in Britain: Does Family Formation Cause Greater Religiosity?
James R. Tilley, Nuffield College, Oxford

Secularization and Tolerance
Giorgio Spini1University of Florence, Faculty of Political Science, Via Laura, 48, 50121 Florence, Italy
Abstract: The author analyzes the relationship between the decline of religions and tolerance.

SOCIAL CHANGE AND RELIGION: THINKING BEYOND SECULARIZATION 
Charles L. Harper is Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Creighton University.
For those expecting its attenuation to accompany modernization, religion remains vibrant and socially salient. It is in parts of Western Europe that the secularization thesis seems to work the best.

Secularization, Religiosity, and the United States Constitution 
Christopher L. Eisgruber 
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Summer 2006, Vol. 13, No. 2, Pages 445-472 
What sort of evidence exists that the United States has been secularized.

The Secularization of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Mike Nicol's The Ibis Tapestry 
Michael Titlestad, Mike Kissack - Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Winter 2006, Vol. 37, No. 4, Pages 48-67 
The novel unravels aspects of the ethical ideology and epistemological framing of the Commission in a way that amounts to its secularization.

Is there a Place for the Sacred in Organizations and their Development 
Rajen K. Gupta, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow 
Journal of Human Values, Vol. 2, No. 2, 149-158 (1996)
Secularization of life is widely seen as a direct consequence of European enlightenment and the process of modernization. Thesis of societal secularization through analysis of ideas in the Anglo-Saxon Christian areas.

Secularization in a strong religious society: the case of Turkey 
Tahirli, Taleh, Department: Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics 
That Islam and secularization is incompatible. The problematic relationship between religion and democracy still shows itself intensively. The application of concept “secularization” to studies of the Muslim countries in the Middle East has been problematic than enlightening.

Is Secularization a Discontinuous Process? 
Daniel Rigney, Richard Machalek, Jerry D. Goodman
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Dec., 1978), pp. 381-387
Undertakes an empirical evidence assessment of the discontinuity thesis. It is not clear that secularization has been discontinuous during this century.

The Case Secularization: A Rebuttal
FRANK J. LECHNER, Emory University 
There is a reasonably solid body of secularization theory with valid historical content. Secularization theory remains a valuable part of the theoretical arsenal of the sociology of religion. 

Secularization as Declining Religious Authority
MARK CHAVES, The University of Notre Dame 
Draws on and develops what is best in the secularization literature. 

Religious Advocacy in Secular Society: A Neo-Secularization Perspective
David Yamane, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Secularization Troubles: The Sociology of Liberal Protestantism
Christopher Hinkle, Harvard Divinity School
Contemporary resistance among both sociologists and theologians reflects an intellectual differentiation associated with secularization.

The Great Secularization Experiment: An Analysis of Communism's Attempt to Eliminate Religion - Froese, P. 

Trends in de katholieke godsdienstigheid eind 20ste eeuw: België vergeleken met West - en Centraal-Europese landen, Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, 24 (1), 9-36. - Karel Dobbelaere (2003)
Rational Choice Theory and Secularization Theory are used to analyse data on Catholics West European and Central European countries in the frame of the Religious and Moral Pluralism study.

The Religious and the Secular: Studies in Secularization by David Martin 
Suzanne Gwiazda, Church History, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jun., 1970).