Role Theory, Role Playing, Role-Taking, Role Strain, Role Convergence
Role distancing is a concept from dramaturgical model. Role distancing is the act of presenting your 'self' as being removed or at a distance from the role you are being required to play. For example, by keeping your eyes open when asked to pray or say grace, you communicate to the group by role distancing, that you are making no commitment to the role. Role Distancing and Role Conflict - Unlike a stage play, we do not define roles. We negotiate social roles. Role Distancing occurs when an individual disagrees with the expectations associated with a particular role, the individual may try to de-emphasize the importance of that role. Erving Goffman calls this role distancing. For example, the actor may only play the role in a tongue and cheek fashion. Role distancing is the act of separating oneself from the role. Role Conflict occurs when some roles that have to be played contradict other important roles. Here the individual does not know what is expected. We call this "role conflict."
Role distancing: Differentiating the role of the elderly from the person. Elderly participants in an extended care class at a senior citizen's center were observed to determine if some of them could continually distance themselves from the client role. Although earlier research suggests that people can use role distancing techniques to disassociate themselves successfully from occasionally played roles or certain aspects of a role, it is unclear whether or how people successfully disassociate themselves continually from enacted roles. Using a symbolic interactionist's definition of role, this paper attempts to 1) classify the circumstances which give rise to both occasional and continual role distancing; 2) specify the conditions under which disassociation from continually enacted roles may be successful; and 3) suggest the relevance of the data to studies on low-status occupations, deviance, and role theory. Journal Qualitative Sociology, Issue Volume 7, Number 3 / September, 1984 - Marnie L. Sayles, Department of Sociology, University of Hawaii-Hilo, 96720 Hilo, Hawaii
Selection, socialization, and mutual adaption: Resolving discrepancies
between people and work - Norbert Semmer, University of Bern, Switzerland, Urs
Schallberger, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Extract: In Applied Psychology: An International Review, 45, 263-288. Special Issue: "Work and Personality", edited by Nigel Nicholson (1996)
The most extreme way of role-distancing is to deny the role, for instance, when it is stigmatized. Thus, in a recent Swiss study with people who were unemployed after graduating from teacher's college, Truniger (1991) found a pronounced tendency to distance oneself from "the unemployed", to paint oneself as atypical, as "not really unemployed" etc. and to emphasize, instead, the differences between oneself and "the unemployed".
One the one hand, role-distancing often is a defensive strategy that may be associated with poor well-being (Kahn, 1990; Semmer, in press). On the other hand, there are work roles which make it difficult to distance oneself from it because high commitment and involvement are part of their definition. Work roles with a high degree of responsibility as well as status are a good example. You cannot be company president and keep declaring that the things going on in this company have really nothing to do with you!