Roles convergence is one aspect of explanation for the rising crime rate among women. That is, the roles of women have converged with or become similar to those of men. That is, when roles converge, behavior becomes similar. The role convergence hypothesis suggests that as gender roles become more similar, female crime should increase toward the level of male crime. Cross-nationally, modernization has been conceptualized as resulting in increased female crime, in part through its supposed effect on gender role convergence. Role theory includes Role Strain, Role Playing, Role Distancing, Role-Taking, and Role Convergence.
Previous research has offered only weak support for this model but the present paper attempts a methodologically improved test. However, the results again fail to support the model. Several methodological and theoretical conclusions are presented to guide future cross-national research in this area. - Modernization, Gender Role Convergence and Female Crime: A Further Test - Timothy F. Hartnagel, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, Muhammad Mizanuddin, Rajshahi University - International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 27, No. 1-2, 1-14 (1986).
GENDER ROLE CONVERGENCE IN CRIME: EVIDENCE FROM
CANADIAN ADULT OFFENCE CHARGE DATA - Jyh-Yaw Joseph Chen, David E. A. Giles
Department of Economics, University of Victoria
ABSTRACT: This paper contributes new evidence relating to the hypothesis that there has been convergence between certain male and female offences over time. Using time-series data for adults charged with offences in Canada over the period 1983 to 2000, we conduct several formal econometric tests of the role convergence hypothesis. This study allows for the non-stationarity of the data; structural breaks in some of the time-series; and it employs several new tests that have not previously been applied to this problem. Our results provide the first strong evidence of gender-convergence for a range of offences in Canada.
Liberation and Crime - The invention of the new
female criminal - J G Weis
Crime and Social Justice Volume:6 dated:(fall-winter 1976) pages:17-27
Annotation: This paper presents empirical examinations of three current theoretical perspectives on female crime which address changes in the roles and criminal behavior of women.
Abstract: the women's liberation (role reversal), human liberation (role convergence), and sexism (role variation) theories of female crime are examined in light of recent analyses of national arrest data and the self-reported delinquent behavior of 555 eighth and eleventh grade students in an upper-middle class suburban community. It is concluded that the empirical evidence suggests that the sexism model is more valid than the liberation theories of female crime and juvenile delinquency.