A position, or status, within a social structure that is shaped by relatively precise
behavioral expectations (norms). A role has been described as the active component of social status. The individual, placed within a status in a
social structure, performs their role in a way shaped by normative expectations.
Individuals have varying ideas
about normative standards and their own unique values. Role behavior is not standardized, however radical departure from
expected role behavior will usually result in social sanctions.
An Examination of
Functional Role Behavior and Its Consequences for Individuals in Group Settings -
Peter E. Mudrack, Genevieve M. Farrell - Adult members of 68 ongoing small groups
evaluated their peers' functional role behaviors (i.e., task, maintenance, individual) in
classroom settings. These three role categories generally emerged from these group ratings
and were interrelated as predicted.
Group members who played task
roles also tended to play maintenance roles. Individual role behaviors were largely
unrelated to task role adoption but were inversely associated with maintenance role
behaviors. Perceptions of group cohesiveness were positively linked with both task and
maintenance role activity but were lowest among individual role players.
DEVIANT GENDER ROLE BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN
Deviant gender role behavior, reviewed in this issue by Bakwin, presents the practicing
pediatrician with an infrequent but generally difficult, frustrating clinical problem,
difficult because so little is known about the genesis of such disorders and frustrating
because the effectiveness of one's therapeutic efforts is so difficult to assess.
Chance, Time Allocation,
and The Evolution of Adaptively Flexible Sex Role Behavior
Patricia Adair Gowaty and Stephen P. Hubbell
An alternative to classic sexual selection hypotheses for sex differentiated pre-mating
behavior is that time available for mating along with fitness differences among
alternative potential mates, induces choosy versus indiscriminate mating behavior. This
alternative hypothesis says that selection has acted so that all individuals flexibly
express fitness-enhancing choosy, indiscriminate, and competitive mating behavior, induced
by time-varying life histories, environmental and social cues. Key predictions of
DYNAMATE, the formal model of adaptively flexible sex role behavior of individuals of both
sexes within dynamically changing populations.
The Relationship of
Role-Related Variables to Job Satisfaction and Commitment to
the Organization in a Restructured Hospital Environment - Rosalie B
Background and Purpose. Many factors in today's hospitals can influence how physical
therapists view their work experience. Changing roles, with the accompanying stress, and
professionalism may contribute to a therapist's perception of his or her job and the
organization in which he or she works. Through a survey of 273 hospital-based physical
therapists, changes in physical therapist role behaviors, levels of stress, occupational
commitment, job satisfaction, and commitment to the organization following restructuring
were identified and examined. Results. Six role behavior dimensions reflecting
professional and organizational responsibilities were identified from the data. After
controlling for sample demographics, the professional role behaviors, specifically those
reflecting interaction and integration with other practitioners, appeared to exert a
small, but positive, influence on job satisfaction and commitment to the organization.
Understanding Extra-Role Behavior in Schools: The Relationships between Job
Satisfaction, Sense of Efficacy, and Teachers' Extra-Role Behavior. Somech,
Anit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat
Abstract: Explored the construct of extra-role behavior in schools, examining
relationships between extra-role behavior and job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and
collective efficacy. Surveys of elementary teachers highlighted three facets of extra-role
behavior corresponding to three levels of the school system (student, team, and
organization). There were positive relations between job satisfaction and extra-role
behavior at all three levels.