Sociology Index

REVERSE DISCRIMINATION

Reverse discrimination is discrimination against a privileged group in order to correct previous discrimination against a disadvantaged group. Reverse discrimination policies can find a justification on efficiency grounds. The accusation of reverse discrimination is often directed against those favoring equity programs or affirmative action programs.

Reverse discrimination is discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group, in favor of members of historically disadvantaged group. Groups may be defined in terms of disability, ethnicity, gender identity, nationality, religion, and sexual orientation.

Reverse discrimination may seek to redress social inequality under which a minority group had less access to privileges. Reverse discrimination can be defined as the unequal treatment of members of the majority groups resulting from preferential policies intended to remedy earlier discrimination against minorities.

Conceptualizing affirmative action efforts as reverse discrimination began to become popular in the mid-twentieth century. The law in some countries, such as the UK, draws a distinction between "equality of provision" and "equality of outcome." Opponents of this distinction label it as an example of reverse discrimination.

Justice and Reverse Discrimination - Defining reverse discrimination as hiring or admissions decisions based on normally irrelevant criteria, book develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity applicable to the reverse discrimination issue. Defines the issue and discusses deductive and inductive reasoning methodology as applied to reverse discrimination. Part Two examines desirable positions, rejection of alternative rules, and qualifications. Those most competent for positions acquire the rights to those positions; strong reverse discrimination is justified for such individuals according to the precept that the principle of compensation is to take precedence over further applications of the distributive rule. - Goldman, Alan H.

Reverse Discrimination and Efficiency in Education - Abstract: This article shows that reverse discrimination policies can find a justification purely on efficiency grounds. We study the optimal provision of education when households belong to different groups, differing in the distribution of the potential to benefit from education among individuals, which is private information. - GIANNI DE FRAJA, University of York.

Racial Test Score Differences as Evidence of Reverse Discrimination: Less than Meets the Eye. William T. Dickens & Thomas J. Kane.
Herrnstein and Murray assume that test score gaps between blacks and whites attending the same schools or in the same jobs must result from the application of different selection criteria to blacks and whites.

Locations of sex discrimination and reverse discrimination: Hong Kong University students' experiences and perceptions 
Ng C.W. - Source: Equal Opportunities International, Volume 20, Number 3, 2001.
Abstract: Presents the results of a study of 84 first year undergraduates in Hong Kong which looked at discrimination due to gender. Considers the female students' experience in relation to home, school and work showing that the study suggests they face blatant and subtle sexist attitudes in all areas. Looks at the male perception of discrimination against women which implies that some recognize and sympathise with the issue, whilst others hint that there is a backlash against the feminist movement.

Affirmative Action, or Reverse Discrimination? 
Authors: Dansby, Ike.
Abstract: Determines the impact of affirmative action programs in response to charges that they are policies of reverse discrimination. Reviewing affirmative action programs submitted by Michigan State departments, researchers determined no reverse discrimination was apparent based on low numbers of reverse discrimination complaints filed by whites.

Lawson, Steven F. 1945- Double Reverse Discrimination.
Reviews in American History - Volume 27, Number 3, September 1999 - The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Excerpt: In their long and torturous struggle for racial equality following the end of slavery, African Americans counted the right to vote as essential to winning full freedom. Reconstruction gave newly emancipated black southerners their first opportunity to cast ballots and elect members of their own race to public office. As participants in biracial governments, they helped bring to the war-devastated South public school systems, internal improvements, and progressive state constitutions.