Sociology Index

RESOCIALIZATION

Resocialization is profound transformation of personality arising from being placed within a situation or environment that is not conducive to maintaining a previous identity. Socialization as a college freshman cannot be considered resocialization. Some choose resocialization or transformation of personality by entering a monastery or a nunnery while others have it forced on them by being sentenced to penitentiary.

After resocialization, the transformed personality is a product of these environments and this resocialization comes from interacting with others and performing the roles required in these settings.

Max Weber focused on voluntary resocialization as opposed to the involuntary resocialization associated with total institutions like orphanages, old-age homes and mental hospitals.

If one is forcefully recruited into a religious cult, or sentenced to prison, involuntary resocialization is likely to occur. This involuntary resocialization is in stark contrast to the voluntary choice of military recruits.

Social Disintegration As a Requisite of Resocialization - Peter McHugh - Social Forces, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Mar., 1966) - Abstract: Radical change, as opposed to ordinary change, requires resocialization rather than ordinary socialization; Resocialization requires an intervening process of desocialization, a process in which the efficacy of old values is erased; Desocialization occurs when interpersonal relations disintegrate. Operant condition of social disintegration, and hence desocialization, are described for prisons and other total institutions where staff-inmate conflict is an important system-maintenance device.

Prisonization or Resocialization? 
A Study of External Factors Associated with the Impact of Imprisonment 
Charles W. Thomas, Department of Sociology, Virginia Commonwealth University 
Report focuses on data from 276 adult male felons in a maximum-security penitentiary in 1971. The general intent of the larger study was to test the viability of two available explanations of the impact of confinement. The specific variables reported include measures of social class of origin, social class of attainment, preprison involvement in criminality, extent of contact with the larger society during confinement, and the inmates' perceptions of their post-prison life-chances. Independent variables were correlated with a measure of prisonization.

Resocialization Barriers of Juvenile Delinquents - Gitana Liaudinskiene 
Abstract: What factors derange successful resocialization process of juveniles? The article provides theoretical and empirical evidence rationale to the problem of barriers of resocialization of juvenile delinquents in the context of social change. It presents a complex concept of resocialization, which is analysed from semantic-conceptual methodological standpoint; it presents the results of qualitative content analysis, generalised barriers of resocialization the delinquents who performed violation of law and order. The barriers are reflected in different levels: family, personality and socialization, educational organisation, state policy.

The core element of all TYC treatment programs is a comprehensive rehabilitation (rehabilitative ideal) program called Resocialization.

The Resocialization program is Phase-progressive and competency-based, which means that youth move gradually from high restriction confinement to aftercare or parole based on the completion of both the minimum length of stay and demonstrated mastery of predesignated objectives.

Reflections on the Forces for Adult Re-socialization and Thoughts on the Self as Capable of "Re-emergence". - Rivera, William M.
Abstract: Resocialization as renewed social assimilation and accomodation, with emphasis on the possibility of such renewed stress to bring out self-redefinition, is discussed. The discussion is centered around a tenative typology of forces for resocialization, a view of adults as having three basic attitudinal strategies toward life, and a flow-chart that may serve as a paradigm for resocialization theory. The three major forces for resocialization are cited as being: (1) Cultural transition; rural to urban area, migration to new country, career shift, and social status shift; (2) Critical social interaction: social conflict, social institutionalization, and brainwashing; and (3) Personal crux: physical accident, familial loss, responsibility shift, religious experience, and age crisis. The resocialization paradigm, in the shape of a tree, shows the basic influences on a human organism (genetic developmental, and environmental), two basic socializations (general and occupational), a disturbance to the norms, resocialization, and three possible re-directions that occur.

Resocialization: An American Experiment. Kennedy, Daniel B.; Kerber, August
Abstract: Compensatory education, criminal rehabilitation and training the hard-core unemployed are all forms of resocialization. Resocialization programs assume that values, attitudes, and ability can be permanently altered as a result of outside intervention. The importance of resocialization is evidenced by the amounts of money and time being spent. The magnitude of such efforts calls for continuous research in the theory, practice and efficacy of resocialization. We investigate resocialization in three institutional areas of education, criminolegal systems and industry. An attempt is made to answer such nonhypothesized questions as: What is socialization? Who decides that socialization has "failed"? What is resocialization? On what theories of etiology (etiological factors) and treatment does resocialization operate? Are we effectively resocializing? Is resocialization a true goal of our society? The definition, nature, and processes of resocialization are considered in Chapter III. The remainder of the book is more directly concerned with specific forms of resocialization. A chapter on counseling and psychotherapy, which are forms of resocialization.

Socialization, resocialization, and communication relationships in the context of an organizational change. - Hart, Zachary P.; Miller, Vernon D.; Johnson, John R.
This investigation explores the influence of perceptions of socialization tactics' use and communication relationships on employees at the initiation of and 4 months into an organizational restructuring.

Role Transformation, Re-Socialization and Psychological Distress - He, Wei
Abstract: Previous research on the association between role and mental distress emphasizes role acquisition or loss. From these perspectives, expected role absence is detrimental to mental health. Using data drawn from a 1990 national probability sample of 1978 respondents age from 18 to 90, this paper found that the stunting phases are related to lowest average distress level in life, and the impact of expected role repertoires absence on the mental health varies by life phase and gender. In spite of the prevalence of expected-role holders in the stunting phase, expected role repertoires absence are not significantly associated with more mental distress, compared with the highly positive correlation between expected role absence and mental distress in role transformation phase. From the resocialization perspective, when approaching middle life, most of the people are either expected role holders or abnormal successful role transformation actors, which shed a light on the lowest average distress level of this phase in life time.

The Political Re-Socialization of Immigrants - Gidengil, E. , Fournier, P. , Blais, A. , Nevitte, N. H. and White, S. E.
Abstract: How adaptable are immigrants to new host political systems? Theories of political socialization produce competing expectations about the political resocialization of immigrants. Using pooled election study data from an immigrant rich country, Canada, this analysis proposes a strategy for measuring for pre- and post-migration experiences and proceeds to test these three theories.

Role Change: A Resocialization Perspective - by Melvyn L. Fein
Fein proposes a theory through which sociologists can offer clinical help to individuals. Role theory suggests that people adopt roles, destructive or constructive, in social groups. If they have adopted a destructive role, clinical sociologists can teach them to abandon it, mourn its loss, and adopt a new role. This procedure is called resocialization.

Participation in Operation Starting Line, Experience of Negative Emotions, and Incidence of Negative Behavior - Kent R. Kerley, Todd L. Matthews, Jeffrey T. Schulz - Department of Sociology, Mississippi State University
The prison industry in the United States has experienced an unprecedented period of growth during the past three decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the monetary investment in the criminal justice system, state-level budget constraints, and high criminal recidivism rates have led many criminal justice professionals to rethink issues of offender resocialization and rehabilitation.

Becoming Israelis: Political Resocialization of Soviet and American Immigrants. by Zvi Gitelman - Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 12, No. 5 (Sep., 1983), pp. 571-572 -

McKorkle L., and R. Korn 1954. Resocialization within Walls. Annals of the American Academy of Political Science 293 (1): 88-98.

Zingraff, M. 1975 Prisonization as an Inhibitor of Effective Resocialization. Criminology 13 (3): 366-387.