Rate is synonym of rhythm or frequency, such as heart rate or sample rate and in statistics a unit rate is a rate that is simplified so that it has a denominator of 1. When studying crime, if a researcher wishes to compare the amount of crime over time or between communities of different sizes, it is not adequate to do a gross count of the amount of crime because the population bases may be different. To get around the problems involved with this, criminologists calculate crime rates (or incarceration rates, conviction rates, criminal recidivism rates). This is done by dividing the amount of crime by the population size and multiplying by 100,000. This produces a rate per 100,000, but occasionally it is useful to calculate a rate per million or some other figure.
The Effect of State Sentencing Policies on Incarceration Rates - Jon Sorensen, Don Stemen, State Sentencing and Corrections Program, Vera Institute of Justice. This article explores the relationship between sentencing policies and the state incarceration rate, prison admission rate, and average sentence length in the late 1990s. Presumptive sentencing guidelines represent the only policy consistently related to incarceration and admission rates, whereas three strikes laws may increase the rate of admission to prison among those arrested for drug offenses. Determinate sentencing, mandatory sentencing, and truth-in-sentencing laws have no effect on rates of incarceration or admission. Crime rates, the percentage of the population that is Black, and citizen ideology have the greatest influence on the rates of incarceration and admission across states.
Variation in Incarceration Rates Across the Fifty States, Pritchard, Anita - Paper examines variation in incarceration rates across the fifty states. As expected, states' crime rates and the ideological identification of their leaders and citizens have the greatest effect upon incarceration rates
Why are Immigrants' Incarceration Rates so Low?
Evidence on Selective Immigration, Deterrence, and Deportation - Kristin F. Butcher,
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
Anne Morrison Piehl, Rutgers University - National Bureau of Economic Research.
Abstract: Much of the concern about immigration adversely affecting crime derives from the fact that immigrants tend to have characteristics in common with native born populations that are disproportionately incarcerated. Despite the widespread perception of a link between immigration and crime, immigrants have much lower institutionalization (incarceration) rates than the native born. More recently arrived immigrants have the lowest comparative incarceration rates, and this difference increased from 1980 to 2000.
Patterns and Predictors of County-Level Incarceration Rates Over Time - Schupp, Paul. and Rivera, Craig - Annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY.
Abstract: This research relies on the semi-parametric group-based method of modeling developmental trajectories, developed by Nagin and colleagues (e.g., Nagin, 1999), to model trajectories of incarceration rates for New York counties in recent decades.
Convictions Versus Conviction Rates: The
J. Mark Ramseyer, Harvard Law School, Eric Bennett Rasmusen, Indiana University Bloomington.
Manu Raghav, Washington and Lee University; Indiana University Bloomington
Harvard Law and Economics Discussion Paper No. 611
Abstract: It is natural to suppose that a prosecutor's conviction rate - the ratio of convictions to cases prosecuted - is a sign of his competence. Prosecutors, however, choose which cases to prosecute.
Rates Based on Risk and Needs Assessments, Foster, Michelle.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Abstract: The focus of this work is on analyzing recidivism rates for offenders who have received risk and needs assessments. This study uses secondary data obtained from ICPSR and collected by the Los Angeles Probation Department from April 1997 to December 1997 for offenders placed on probation. The reoffending rates over there time periods are examined. The results of the logistic regression analysis are that offenders who have a drug abuse problem are more likely to offend at 12 months and 18 month timeframes rather than initially at 6 months. These results suggest a greater need for treatment services the longer an offender is probation instead of a shorter time period for treatment.
Recidivism Among Youth Released From The Youth Leadership Academy To The City Challenge Intensive Aftercare Program - by Bruce Frederick and Dina Roy.
The present study examined recidivism among 323 male juvenile delinquents from New York City who were released from the Sergeant Henry Johnson Youth Leadership Academy (YLA) to the City Challenge Intensive Aftercare Program (CCh) from May 1992 through June 1999. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether efforts to improve the design and implementation of the YLA/CCh sequence had been accompanied by reductions in post-release recidivism.