Sociology Index

RACISM

Racism is an ideology based on the idea that humans can be separated into distinct racial groups and that these groups can be ranked on a hierarchy of intelligence, ability, morality and so on. Nazism is remembered for its ideology of racism Black filmmakers have risen in prominence in Hollywood, but race and racism have ceased to be major themes. Ethnocentrism may be combined with racism in the belief that individuals can also be classified into distinct racial groups
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Economically rational irrational racism oocurs where a stable, non-optimal, racist equilibrium exists in a community where no one is an irrational racist. Fully rational racism occurs where past injustices have led to present inequalities between the races. Racism is inherently irrational. The arguments involve accusations concerning stereotyping as well as inconsistencies between attitudes and behavior. Moral arguments claim that racism fails as means to well-defined ends.

United Nations resolutions have referred to racism without distinguishing it from racial discrimination. Discrimination is universal, but racism is historically and geographically very specific and also pathological. The concept of racism has been of great rhetorical power in mobilising international action for political change in Southern Africa. - THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF RACISM AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION - Michael Banton.

One Beige Crayon - Rethinking the Social Construction of Racism 
Patricia Brieschke, Hofstra University, Urban Education, Vol. 33, No. 1, 50-70 (1998)
This analysis reveals how educators talk about race and racism in the context of their personal and professional lives. Racism was constructed as an exclusively Black and White experience and social agenda in public education.

Lay Theories About White Racists: What Constitutes Racism (and What Doesn't) 
Samuel R. Sommers, Tufts University, Michael I. Norton, Harvard Business School 
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Vol. 9, No. 1, 117-138 (2006)
Psychological theories of racial bias assume a pervasive motivation to avoid appearing racist, but what are laypeople's theories about what constitutes racism. By investigating lay theories of White racism across both college and community samples, we develop a more complete understanding of the nature of race-related norms, motivations, and processes of social perception.

The Denial of Racism - The Role of Humor, Personal Experience, and Self-Censorship 
Brendon Barnes, Ingrid Palmary, Kevin Durrheim, Medical Research Council 
Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 321-338 (2001)
Informed by discursive psychology, this study aimed to identify and explicate those rhetorical maneuvers that function to introduce the issue of race into conversations in the presence of an interracial couple and to negotiate "race talk" in their presence while distancing the speaker from inferences of racism.

On the Moral Economy of Racism and Racist Rationalization in Sport - Jonathan A. Long, Leeds Metropolitan University, Mike J. McNamee, University of Wales Swansea, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Vol. 39, No. 4, (2004)
This article draws on and extends a series of empirical evidence studies into the nature and extent of racism in selected sports and philosophical explorations. Explores questions of responsibility and culpability for both committed and unacknowledged racism in sports.

Institutionalized Racism: an Analytic Approach - Robert E. Klitgaard, Harvard University 
Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, 41-49 (1972) 
Models are used to describe three kinds of racism: irrational racism, bigotry which hurts both parties; 'economically rational irrational racism', where a racist equilibrium exists in a community where no one is an irrational racist; and 'fully rational racism', where past injustices have led to present inequalities between the races.

Influence of Perceived Neighborhood Diversity and Racism Experience on the Racial Socialization of Black Youth - J. Derek McNeil, Wheaton College, Howard C. Stevenson, Teresa Herrero-Taylor, Gwendolyn Y. Davis, Univ of Pennsylvania, 
Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 3, 273-290 (2005) 
This study examines protective and proactive racial socialization communications received from families. Boys are more likely than girls to receive coping with antagonism and cultural pride communications in high culturally diverse neighborhoods when they’ve had a personal experience with racism. Girls from low culturally diverse neighborhoods, report receiving more cultural pride messages from family.

Assessing the Stressful Effects of Racism: A Review of Instrumentation 
Shawn O. Utsey, Seton Hall University - Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 3, (1998)
This article reviewed six instruments developed to assess the psychological processes associated with the experience of racism among African Americans.

Resistance to Affirmative Action - Self-Interest or Racism? 
Cardell K. Jacobson, Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University 
Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 29, No. 2, 306-329 (1985)
In this article racial threat or self-interest, new symbolic racism, and old-fashioned racism are examined as predictors of attitudes about affirmative action programs. These are all found to be related to attitudes about affirmative action programs and remain so when a variety of control variables are included in the regression analyses.

Facing inwards and outwards? Institutional racism, race equality and the role of Black and Asian professional associations - Coretta Phillips, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK - Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol. 5, No. 4, 357-377 (2005)
Lawrence Inquiry and its assertion that ‘institutional racism’ was endemic in the British police service. Explores their internal supportive function in assisting members who have experienced various forms of occupational racism.

Crack Mothers in the News: A Narrative of Paternalistic Racism 
Marian Meyers, Department of Communication at Georgia State University. 
Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 28, No. 3, 194-216 (2004)
The underlying paternalistic racism reflects the intersectionality of gender, race, and class while reinforcing negative stereotypes about African American women.

Modern Racism and Modern Discrimination 
The Effects of Race, Racial Attitudes, and Context on Simulated Hiring Decisions 
John B. McConahay, Duke University - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 4, 551-558 (1983)
Ambivalence concept was used to demonstrate the construct validity of a relatively nonreactive scale of racial prejudice, the Modern Racism Scale. Modern Racism Scale were unrelated to hiring evaluations.

"The Silent Catastrophe" - Institutional Racism in the British Educational System and the Underachievement of Black Boys - Mekada Graham, California State University, Fresno 
Gil Robinson, London Metropolitan University, Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 34, No. 5, (2004) The continuing denial of race and racism in British educational policy is reflected in the intransigence of many schools to consider the differential positioning of Black boys in the wider society.

Conservative Implications of the Irrelevance of Racism in Contemporary African American Cinema - Earl Sheridan, University of North Carolina at Wilmington - Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2, 177-192 (2006)
It is ironic that since the 1990s, when more Black filmmakers than ever before have reached prominence in Hollywood, race and racism have virtually ceased to be major themes. Why has this occurred?

Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury - Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress - Robert T. Carter, Teachers College Columbia University, The Counseling Psychologist, Vol. 35, No. 1, 13-105 (2007)
The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color.

Racism or Sexism? Attributional Ambiguity and Simultaneous Membership in Multiple Oppressed Groups - King K.R.
Source: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 33, Number 2, 1 February 2003.

Blacks, Whites, and the New Prejudice: Does Aversive Racism Impact Employee Assessment? - Gilbert, Jacqueline A.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent - Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 35, Number 7, July 2005

Perpetrators of Prejudice - Prejudice as Group Position: Microfoundations of a Sociological Approach to Racism and Race Relations - Lawrence D. Bobo, Harvard University
Journal of Social Issues 55 (3), 445–472.

Aversive Racism and Selection Decisions: 1989 and 1999
John F. Dovidio, & Samuel L. Gaertner

A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health 
Yin Paradies, Centre for Health and Society, University of Melbourne, Australia
Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Australia 
This paper reviews 138 empirical quantitative population-based studies of self-reported racism and health.

GENDERED RACISM AND THE PRODUCTION OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE
Media representations and identity work among “immigrant youth” in contemporary Sweden
Anna Bredström, Linköping University, Sweden
Political Scientist Susan Moller Okin poses the question ”Is multiculturalism bad for women?”
With the recent hullabaloo concerning so-called honour killings and other forms of allegedly culturally induced oppression against “ethnic” women – predominately from the “Muslim world” – the ways in which gender and ethnicity intersect can no longer go unaddressed.

Citizenship education as placebo - ‘standards’, institutional racism and education policy 
David Gillborn, Institute of Education, University of London 
Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, Vol. 1, No. 1, 83-104 (2006)

Psychological Aspects of Racism in Organizations 
Roderick J. Watts, DePaul University 
Robert T. Carter, Teachers College, Columbia University 
Group & Organization Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, 328-344 (1991)
Three levels are defined: institutional racism, racial climate, and personal discrimination. The results, based on a sample of Blacks in a state bureaucracy, indicated that racial identity was the best predictor of perceptions of racial climate and personal discrimination.

Discourse and the Denial of Racism - Teun A. van Dijk, UNIVERSITY OF AMSTERDAM 
Discourse & Society, Vol. 3, No. 1, 87-118 (1992)
After a conceptual analysis of denial strategies in interpersonal impression formation on the one hand, and within the social-political context of minority group and immigration management on the other, various types of denial are examined in everyday conversations, press reports and parliamentary debates.

Racism in the News: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in Two Australian Newspapers - PETER TEO, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION, SINGAPORE 
Discourse & Society, Vol. 11, No. 1, 7-49 (2000)
The aim of this study is to probe for ideological construction of racism imbricated within the structure of newspaper reporting.

The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample - Brondolo E, Thompson S, Brady N, Appel R, Cassells A, Tobin JN, Sweeney M. 
Department of Psychology, St John's University, Jamaica, NY 11439, USA.
Ethn Dis. 2005 Autumn;15(4 Suppl 5):S5-14-9.
This study tests the hypothesis that lifetime exposure to racism influences individuals' appraisals of and coping responses to new episodes of maltreatment.

Covert Racism: An Application of Essed's Analysis in a South African Context 
J. Louw-Potgieter, Department of Industrial Psychology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag XI 7, Bellville 7535, South Africa' 
Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 5, 307-319 (1989)
Accounts of the experience of covert racism in the context of an 'open' university in South Africa were examined in terms of a method based on attributional principles. These accounts illustrated that when judging an incident as racist or not, black students showed a high degree of tolerance and made clear distinctions between racist and non-racist incidents.

Racism and Mental Health - Evelyn Barbee, RN, PhD, FAAN 
Department of Nursing, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences in Boston, Massachusetts 
Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, Vol. 8, No. 6, 194-199 (2002)
Race and its associated concept, racism, have long been linked to social and health problems. Racism as a social construct is defined, and some of the literature on racism and mental health is reviewed.

Let's Kick Racism Out of Football— and the Lefties Too! 
Responses to Lee Bowyer on a West Ham Web Site 
Andy Ruddock. John Moores University in Liverpool, United Kingdoma.ruddock@ljmu.ac.uk 
Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Vol. 29, No. 4, 369-385 (2005)
This article examines how the empirical study of football fans can inform contemporary debates in critical audience and audience studies, particularly around issues of pleasure and cultural citizenship. West Ham United signs Lee Bowyer; a controversial move, given the accusations of racism surrounding the player. Pleasure and politics coexist but do not meet in a West Ham supporting vernacular that has little to say about racism.

KICHING RACISM OUT OF SOCCER IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND - John Horne 
Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Vol. 20, No. 1, 45-68 (1996) The "Let's Kick Racism out of Football" (LKROOF) campaign is the product of the London-based Commission for Racial Equality. The article argues for the need for campaigns such as LKROOF to recognize the specificity of racism in different social contexts. The author will investigate the question "Is this also the case for the issue of racism in Scottish soccer?"

Racism Stress Management - Racial Socialization Beliefs and the Experience of Depression and Anger in African American Youth - Youth & Society, Vol. 29, No. 2, 197-222 (1997)
HOWARD C. STEVENSON, ANGELA BISHOP, University of Pennsylvania 
JOCELYN REED, University of Maryland, PRESTON BODISON, Temple University.
African American adolescents who respond to racial intolerance with anger and depression are silenced and vulnerable to misinterpretation and misdiagnosis. Gender differences were found.

‘Hottentots’ and the evolution of European racism - Nicholas Hudson, University of British Columbia - Journal of European Studies, Vol. 34, No. 4, 308-332 (2004)
This essay develops a theory concerning the ideological history of ‘racism’, understood in its modern Western sense. Khoikhoi, popularly known as ‘Hottentots’, a peripheral and cooperative people, attracted this virulent hatred. 
Europeans needed to neutralize the ideological threat represented by the Khoikhoi. ‘Race’, and its corresponding ideology of ‘racism’, involves an approximation and appropriation of the ‘Other’ into Western systems of thought.

Common Sense versus Political Discourse - Debating Racism and Multicultural Society in Dutch Talk Shows - Andra Leurdijk - European Journal of Communication, Vol. 12, No. 2, (1997)
An analysis of Dutch audience discussion shows dealing with racism and a multicultural society. In what ways do audience discussion shows offer a forum for public debate on racism?

Channeling blackness, challenging racism: a theatrical response - Yeidy M. Rivero, Indiana University, USA - Global Media and Communication, Vol. 2, No. 3, (2006).
The need to explore commercial television’s racial, ethnic, cultural, and gendered representations. You Don’t Look Like questions and the positionality of black citizens in the Puerto Rico’s island’s society, culture, and on television.

Anti-Muslim Racism and the European Security State 
Liz Fekete, Institute of Race Relations, IRR’s European Race Audit
Race & Class, Vol. 46, No. 1, 3-29 (2004)
The ‘war on terror’ is having a major impact on race relations policies. New legislation, policing and counter-terrorist measures are casting Muslims as the ‘enemy within’. The parameters of xeno-racism have been extended to Muslim communities. This is not just Islamophobia but structured anti-Muslim racism.

Challenging racism strategies for the '80s 
A. Sivanandan, Institute of Race Relations 
Race & Class, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1-11 (1983) © 1983 Institute of Race Relations
Talk given on 12 March 1983 at the Greater London Council Ethnic Minorities Unit Consultation on Challenging Racism.

Convergence Between Racial and Political Identities - Boundary Erasure or Aversive Racism? 
GAIL E. COOVER, LINDA C. GODBOLD - Communication Research, Vol. 25, No. 6, 669-688 (1998) 
Results are consistent with aversive racism and assertions about White viewers' preferences for accommodating representations of Blacks.

Racism and Rationality - The Need for a New Critique - David Theo Goldberg 
Arizona State University, Tempe - Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 3, (1990)
Argument, logical and moral, offered for the general assumption that racism is inherently irrational.

Racism, Ethnicity and Criminology. Developing Minority Perspectives 
Coretta Phillips, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Benjamin Bowling, King's College, London. 
In empirical and theoretical criminology references to racism and ethnicity are commonplace. This paper proposes the formulation of minority perspectives in criminology.

Unconscious Racism: Scrutinizing Judicial Reasoning in 'Stolen Generation' Cases 
Elena Marchetti, Janet Ransley, Griffith University, Australia 
Social & Legal Studies, Vol. 14, No. 4, 533-552 (2005) Charles Lawrence's cultural meaning test is used to critique the reasoning of the judges in Australian cases concerning the 'stolen generation' and the unconscious racism that still exists in the Australian liberal legal system.

The Contract Compliance Policy: an Illustration of the Persistence of Racism as the Failure of Modernity - Joe Charlesworth, Commission for Racial Equality 
Véronique Voruz, Queen Mary and Westfield College, London, Social & Legal Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 193-212 (1998)

Racism, Capitalism, and the Schools 
Understanding Demographic Data and Educational Change in Buffalo, New York (1930-1977) 
Charles Reitz, Buffalo, New York - Urban Education, Vol. 18, No. 4, 490-502 (1984)
The evidence supports the conclusion that racism in Buffalo has been sustained by social, political, and educational structures.

Sophistication and the Antecedents of Whites' Racial Policy Attitudes: Racism, Ideology, and Affirmative Action in America - CHRISTOPHER M. FEDERICO and JIM SIDANIUS 
Abstract: Values include such things as notions of fair play and devotion to the principle of equality of opportunity.

The racism scene and the multicultural project: Quebec as an example - Philippe Bataille 
Social Science Information, Vol. 37, No. 2, 381-399 (1998) 
In crisis-ridden social and cultural contexts, racism tends to be translated into action. This article is about possible institutional and political response to racism.

Storylines in Racialized Times: Racism and Anti-Racism in Toronto's Social Services 
Donna Baines, Labour Studies, McMaster University, Hamilton,
British Journal of Social Work (2002) 32, 185-199
The volume and quality of the data concerning race merited its own discussion particularly in light of the ongoing debates concerning how to move forward with an anti-racism project in this era of post-equity, neo-liberalism. Details the form and content of racism and anti-racism in social work agencies.

What kind of people are we? 'Race', anti-racism and social welfare research 
M Boushel, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Prior Road, Bristol BS8 1TZ, UK
British Journal of Social Work (2000) 30, 71-89

Avoiding the Issue - Racism and Administrative Responsibility in Public Administration 
Jennifer Alexander, Cleveland State University 
The American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 27, No. 4, 343-361 (1997)
Racism is an integral and often invisible component of the customary morality.

'Race' and Racism: An Attempt to Organize Difference 
Farhad N. Dalal, North East London Psychotherapy and Counselling Association - Group Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3, 277-290.
Addresses the issue of `race' and racism in the context of Group-analytic psychotherapy. There is no specific Group-analytic understanding of racism. The ways of viewing the phenomena of 'race' and racism as dynamic processes rather than as fixed and concrete events.

The Emergence of Racism in Group Analysis - Dick Blackwell 
Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture 
Group Analysis, Vol. 27, No. 2, 197-210 (1994)
In a racist society the dynamics of racism will be internalized by all its members. The emergence of racism in an analytic group reveals the importance of group composition.

Racism in Children's and Young People's Literature in the Western World 
Joerg Becker, Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktsforschung, Frankfurt 
Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 10, No. 3, 295-303 (1973)

Media, Racism and Public Health Psychology 
Raymond Nairn, University of Auckland, Frank Pega, Tim McCreanor, Massey University, Jenny Rankine, Words & Pictures Media Consultancy, Angela Barnes, Massey University, New Zealand 
Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 2
Literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing.

Psychiatric Contributions to Understanding Racism 
Laurie Jo Moore, Auckland University School of Medicine, New Zealand 
Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 37, No. 2, 147-183 (2000)
Theoretical contributions of psychiatrists to understanding racism. Racism is poorly understood because it is a tool of socio-economic oppression. The damaging effects of racism on physical and mental health are reviewed. Psychiatry has contributed to psychological theories of the origins of racism. Psychoanalytic perspectives argue that racism is not just a problem of certain people.

Ideology, Camouflage or Contingency? Racism in British Psychiatry - Roland Littlewood, M.B., D.PHIL.- Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 30, No. 3, (1993)