Racism is an ideology based on the idea that humans can
be separated into distinct racial groups and that these groups can be ranked on a hierarchy of intelligence, ability, morality and so on. Nazism is remembered for its ideology of racism Black filmmakers
have risen in prominence in Hollywood, but race and racism have
ceased to be major themes. Ethnocentrism may be combined
with racism in the belief that individuals can also be classified
into distinct racial groups
Economically rational irrational racism oocurs where a
stable, non-optimal, racist equilibrium exists in a community
where no one is an irrational racist. Fully rational racism occurs where past injustices
have led to present inequalities between the races. Racism is inherently irrational. The
arguments involve accusations concerning stereotyping as well
as inconsistencies between attitudes and behavior. Moral
arguments claim that racism fails as means to well-defined ends.
United Nations resolutions have referred to racism
without distinguishing it from racial discrimination. Discrimination is universal, but
racism is historically and geographically very specific and also pathological. The concept
of racism has been of great rhetorical power in mobilising international action for
political change in Southern Africa. - THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF RACISM AND RACIAL
DISCRIMINATION - Michael Banton.
One Beige Crayon - Rethinking the Social
Construction of Racism
Patricia Brieschke, Hofstra University, Urban Education, Vol. 33, No. 1, 50-70 (1998)
This analysis reveals how educators talk about race and racism in the context of their
personal and professional lives. Racism was constructed as an exclusively Black and White
experience and social agenda in public education.
Lay Theories About White Racists: What
Constitutes Racism (and What Doesn't)
Samuel R. Sommers, Tufts University, Michael I. Norton, Harvard Business School
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Vol. 9, No. 1, 117-138 (2006)
Psychological theories of racial bias assume a pervasive motivation to avoid appearing
racist, but what are laypeople's theories about what constitutes racism. By investigating
lay theories of White racism across both college and community samples, we develop a more
complete understanding of the nature of race-related norms,
motivations, and processes of social perception.
The Denial of Racism - The Role of Humor, Personal Experience, and
Brendon Barnes, Ingrid Palmary, Kevin Durrheim, Medical Research Council
Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 321-338 (2001)
Informed by discursive psychology, this study aimed to identify and explicate those
rhetorical maneuvers that function to introduce the issue of race into conversations in
the presence of an interracial couple and to negotiate "race talk" in their
presence while distancing the speaker from inferences of racism.
On the Moral Economy of Racism and Racist Rationalization in Sport - Jonathan A. Long,
Leeds Metropolitan University, Mike J. McNamee, University of Wales
Swansea, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Vol. 39, No. 4, (2004)
This article draws on and extends a series of empirical
evidence studies into the nature and extent of racism in selected sports and
philosophical explorations. Explores questions of responsibility and culpability for both
committed and unacknowledged racism in sports.
Institutionalized Racism: an Analytic Approach -
Robert E. Klitgaard, Harvard University
Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, 41-49 (1972)
Models are used to describe three kinds of racism: irrational racism, bigotry which hurts
both parties; 'economically rational irrational racism', where a racist equilibrium exists
in a community where no one is an irrational racist; and 'fully rational racism', where
past injustices have led to present inequalities between the races.
Influence of Perceived Neighborhood Diversity and Racism Experience on the Racial
Socialization of Black Youth - J. Derek McNeil, Wheaton College, Howard
C. Stevenson, Teresa Herrero-Taylor, Gwendolyn Y. Davis, Univ of Pennsylvania,
Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 3, 273-290 (2005)
This study examines protective and proactive racial socialization
communications received from families. Boys are more likely than girls to receive coping
with antagonism and cultural pride communications in high culturally diverse neighborhoods
when theyve had a personal experience with racism. Girls from low culturally diverse
neighborhoods, report receiving more cultural pride messages from family.
Assessing the Stressful Effects of Racism: A Review of Instrumentation
Shawn O. Utsey, Seton Hall University - Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 3,
This article reviewed six instruments developed to assess the psychological processes
associated with the experience of racism among African Americans.
Resistance to Affirmative Action - Self-Interest or Racism?
Cardell K. Jacobson, Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University
Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 29, No. 2, 306-329 (1985)
In this article racial threat or self-interest, new symbolic racism, and old-fashioned
racism are examined as predictors of attitudes about affirmative action programs. These
are all found to be related to attitudes about affirmative action programs and remain so
when a variety of control variables are included in the regression analyses.
Facing inwards and outwards? Institutional racism, race equality and the role of
Black and Asian professional associations - Coretta Phillips, London School
of Economics and Political Science, UK - Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol. 5,
No. 4, 357-377 (2005)
Lawrence Inquiry and its assertion that institutional racism was endemic in
the British police service. Explores their internal supportive function in assisting
members who have experienced various forms of occupational racism.
Crack Mothers in the News: A Narrative of
Marian Meyers, Department of Communication at Georgia State University.
Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 28, No. 3, 194-216 (2004)
The underlying paternalistic racism reflects the intersectionality of gender, race, and
class while reinforcing negative stereotypes about African American women.
Modern Racism and Modern Discrimination
The Effects of Race, Racial Attitudes, and Context on Simulated Hiring Decisions
John B. McConahay, Duke University - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol.
9, No. 4, 551-558 (1983)
Ambivalence concept was used to demonstrate the construct validity
of a relatively nonreactive scale of racial prejudice, the Modern Racism Scale. Modern
Racism Scale were unrelated to hiring evaluations.
"The Silent Catastrophe" - Institutional Racism in the British
Educational System and the Underachievement of Black Boys - Mekada Graham,
California State University, Fresno
Gil Robinson, London Metropolitan University, Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 34, No. 5,
(2004) The continuing denial of race and racism in British educational policy is reflected
in the intransigence of many schools to consider the differential positioning of Black
boys in the wider society.
Conservative Implications of the Irrelevance of Racism in Contemporary African
American Cinema - Earl Sheridan, University of North Carolina at Wilmington -
Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2, 177-192 (2006)
It is ironic that since the 1990s, when more Black filmmakers than ever before have
reached prominence in Hollywood, race and racism have virtually ceased to be major themes.
Why has this occurred?
Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury - Recognizing and Assessing
Race-Based Traumatic Stress - Robert T. Carter, Teachers College Columbia
University, The Counseling Psychologist, Vol. 35, No. 1, 13-105 (2007)
The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of
racism on people of Color.
Racism or Sexism? Attributional Ambiguity and Simultaneous Membership in Multiple
Oppressed Groups - King K.R.
Source: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 33, Number 2, 1 February 2003.
Blacks, Whites, and the New Prejudice: Does Aversive Racism Impact Employee
Assessment? - Gilbert, Jacqueline A.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent - Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, Volume 35, Number 7, July 2005
Perpetrators of Prejudice - Prejudice as Group Position: Microfoundations of a
Sociological Approach to Racism and Race Relations - Lawrence D. Bobo, Harvard
Journal of Social Issues 55 (3), 445472.
Aversive Racism and Selection Decisions: 1989 and 1999
John F. Dovidio, & Samuel L. Gaertner
A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health
Yin Paradies, Centre for Health and Society, University of Melbourne, Australia
Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Australia
This paper reviews 138 empirical quantitative population-based studies of self-reported
racism and health.
GENDERED RACISM AND THE PRODUCTION OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE
Media representations and identity work among immigrant youth in contemporary
Anna Bredström, Linköping University, Sweden
Political Scientist Susan Moller Okin poses the question Is multiculturalism bad for women?
With the recent hullabaloo concerning so-called honour killings and other forms of
allegedly culturally induced oppression against ethnic women
predominately from the Muslim world the ways in which gender and
ethnicity intersect can no longer go unaddressed.
Citizenship education as placebo - standards, institutional
racism and education policy
David Gillborn, Institute of Education, University of London
Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, Vol. 1, No. 1, 83-104 (2006)
Psychological Aspects of Racism in Organizations
Roderick J. Watts, DePaul University
Robert T. Carter, Teachers College, Columbia University
Group & Organization Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, 328-344 (1991)
Three levels are defined: institutional racism, racial climate, and personal
discrimination. The results, based on a sample of Blacks in a state bureaucracy, indicated that racial identity was the best
predictor of perceptions of racial climate and personal discrimination.
Discourse and the Denial of Racism - Teun A. van Dijk, UNIVERSITY OF
Discourse & Society, Vol. 3, No. 1, 87-118 (1992)
After a conceptual analysis of denial strategies in interpersonal impression formation on
the one hand, and within the social-political context of minority
group and immigration management on the other, various
types of denial are examined in everyday conversations, press reports and parliamentary
Racism in the News: A Critical Discourse Analysis
of News Reporting in Two Australian Newspapers - PETER TEO, NATIONAL
INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION, SINGAPORE
Discourse & Society, Vol. 11, No. 1, 7-49 (2000)
The aim of this study is to probe for ideological construction of racism imbricated within
the structure of newspaper reporting.
The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample
- Brondolo E, Thompson S, Brady N, Appel R, Cassells A, Tobin JN, Sweeney M.
Department of Psychology, St John's University, Jamaica, NY 11439, USA.
Ethn Dis. 2005 Autumn;15(4 Suppl 5):S5-14-9.
This study tests the hypothesis that lifetime exposure to racism influences individuals'
appraisals of and coping responses to new episodes of maltreatment.
Covert Racism: An Application of Essed's Analysis in a South African Context
J. Louw-Potgieter, Department of Industrial Psychology, University of the Western Cape,
Private Bag XI 7, Bellville 7535, South Africa'
Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 5, 307-319 (1989)
Accounts of the experience of covert racism in the context of an 'open' university in
South Africa were examined in terms of a method based on attributional principles. These
accounts illustrated that when judging an incident as racist or not, black students showed
a high degree of tolerance and made clear distinctions between racist and non-racist
Racism and Mental Health - Evelyn Barbee, RN, PhD, FAAN
Department of Nursing, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences in Boston,
Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, Vol. 8, No. 6, 194-199 (2002)
Race and its associated concept, racism, have long been linked to social and health
problems. Racism as a social construct is defined, and some of the literature on racism
and mental health is reviewed.
Let's Kick Racism Out of Football and the Lefties Too!
Responses to Lee Bowyer on a West Ham Web Site
Andy Ruddock. John Moores University in Liverpool, United
Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Vol. 29, No. 4, 369-385 (2005)
This article examines how the empirical study of football fans can inform contemporary
debates in critical audience and audience
studies, particularly around issues of pleasure and cultural citizenship. West Ham
United signs Lee Bowyer; a controversial move, given the accusations of racism surrounding
the player. Pleasure and politics coexist but do not meet in a West Ham supporting
vernacular that has little to say about racism.
KICHING RACISM OUT OF SOCCER IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND - John
Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Vol. 20, No. 1, 45-68 (1996) The "Let's Kick
Racism out of Football" (LKROOF) campaign is the product of the London-based
Commission for Racial Equality. The article argues for the need for campaigns such as
LKROOF to recognize the specificity of racism in different social contexts. The author
will investigate the question "Is this also the case for the issue of racism in
Racism Stress Management - Racial Socialization Beliefs and the Experience of
Depression and Anger in African American Youth - Youth & Society, Vol.
29, No. 2, 197-222 (1997)
HOWARD C. STEVENSON, ANGELA BISHOP, University of Pennsylvania
JOCELYN REED, University of Maryland, PRESTON BODISON, Temple University.
African American adolescents who respond to racial intolerance with anger and depression
are silenced and vulnerable to misinterpretation and misdiagnosis. Gender differences were
Hottentots and the evolution of European racism -
Nicholas Hudson, University of British Columbia - Journal of European Studies, Vol. 34,
No. 4, 308-332 (2004)
This essay develops a theory concerning the ideological history of racism,
understood in its modern Western sense. Khoikhoi, popularly known as
Hottentots, a peripheral and cooperative people, attracted this virulent
Europeans needed to neutralize the ideological threat represented by the Khoikhoi.
Race, and its corresponding ideology of racism, involves an
approximation and appropriation of the Other into Western systems of thought.
Common Sense versus Political Discourse - Debating Racism and Multicultural
Society in Dutch Talk Shows - Andra Leurdijk - European Journal of
Communication, Vol. 12, No. 2, (1997)
An analysis of Dutch audience discussion shows dealing with racism and a multicultural
society. In what ways do audience discussion shows offer a forum for public debate on
Channeling blackness, challenging racism: a theatrical response -
Yeidy M. Rivero, Indiana University, USA - Global Media and Communication, Vol. 2,
No. 3, (2006).
The need to explore commercial televisions racial, ethnic, cultural, and gendered
representations. You Dont Look Like questions and the positionality of black
citizens in the Puerto Ricos islands society, culture, and on television.
Anti-Muslim Racism and the European Security State
Liz Fekete, Institute of Race Relations, IRRs European Race Audit
Race & Class, Vol. 46, No. 1, 3-29 (2004)
The war on terror is having a major impact on race relations policies. New
legislation, policing and counter-terrorist measures are casting Muslims as the
enemy within. The parameters of xeno-racism have been extended to Muslim
communities. This is not just Islamophobia but structured anti-Muslim racism.
Challenging racism strategies for the '80s
A. Sivanandan, Institute of Race Relations
Race & Class, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1-11 (1983) © 1983 Institute of Race Relations
Talk given on 12 March 1983 at the Greater London Council Ethnic Minorities Unit
Consultation on Challenging Racism.
Convergence Between Racial and Political Identities - Boundary Erasure or
GAIL E. COOVER, LINDA C. GODBOLD - Communication Research, Vol. 25, No. 6, 669-688
Results are consistent with aversive racism and assertions about White viewers'
preferences for accommodating representations of Blacks.
Racism and Rationality - The Need for a New Critique - David
Arizona State University, Tempe - Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 3,
Argument, logical and moral, offered for the general assumption that racism is inherently
Racism, Ethnicity and Criminology. Developing Minority Perspectives
Coretta Phillips, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Benjamin Bowling, King's College, London.
In empirical and theoretical criminology references to racism and ethnicity are
commonplace. This paper proposes the formulation of minority perspectives in criminology.
Unconscious Racism: Scrutinizing Judicial Reasoning in 'Stolen Generation'
Elena Marchetti, Janet Ransley, Griffith University, Australia
Social & Legal Studies, Vol. 14, No. 4, 533-552 (2005) Charles Lawrence's cultural
meaning test is used to critique the reasoning of the judges in Australian cases
concerning the 'stolen generation' and the unconscious racism that still exists in the
Australian liberal legal system.
The Contract Compliance Policy: an Illustration of the Persistence of Racism as
the Failure of Modernity - Joe Charlesworth, Commission for Racial Equality
Véronique Voruz, Queen Mary and Westfield College, London, Social & Legal Studies,
Vol. 7, No. 2, 193-212 (1998)
Racism, Capitalism, and the Schools
Understanding Demographic Data and Educational Change in Buffalo, New York
Charles Reitz, Buffalo, New York - Urban Education, Vol. 18, No. 4, 490-502 (1984)
The evidence supports the conclusion that racism in Buffalo has been sustained by social,
political, and educational structures.
Sophistication and the Antecedents of Whites' Racial Policy Attitudes: Racism,
Ideology, and Affirmative Action in America - CHRISTOPHER M. FEDERICO and JIM
Abstract: Values include such things as notions of fair play and devotion to the principle
of equality of opportunity.
The racism scene and the multicultural project: Quebec as an example -
Social Science Information, Vol. 37, No. 2, 381-399 (1998)
In crisis-ridden social and cultural contexts, racism tends to be translated into action.
This article is about possible institutional and political response to racism.
Storylines in Racialized Times: Racism and Anti-Racism in Toronto's Social
Donna Baines, Labour Studies, McMaster University, Hamilton,
British Journal of Social Work (2002) 32, 185-199
The volume and quality of the data concerning race merited its own discussion particularly
in light of the ongoing debates concerning how to move forward with an anti-racism project
in this era of post-equity, neo-liberalism. Details the
form and content of racism and anti-racism in social work agencies.
What kind of people are we? 'Race', anti-racism and social welfare research
M Boushel, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Prior Road, Bristol BS8
British Journal of Social Work (2000) 30, 71-89
Avoiding the Issue - Racism and Administrative Responsibility in Public
Jennifer Alexander, Cleveland State University
The American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 27, No. 4, 343-361 (1997)
Racism is an integral and often invisible component of the customary morality.
'Race' and Racism: An Attempt to Organize Difference
Farhad N. Dalal, North East London Psychotherapy and Counselling Association - Group
Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3, 277-290.
Addresses the issue of `race' and racism in the context of Group-analytic psychotherapy.
There is no specific Group-analytic understanding of racism. The ways of viewing the
phenomena of 'race' and racism as dynamic processes rather than as fixed and concrete
The Emergence of Racism in Group Analysis - Dick Blackwell
Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture
Group Analysis, Vol. 27, No. 2, 197-210 (1994)
In a racist society the dynamics of racism will be internalized by all its members. The
emergence of racism in an analytic group reveals the importance of group composition.
Racism in Children's and Young People's Literature in the Western World
Joerg Becker, Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktsforschung, Frankfurt
Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 10, No. 3, 295-303 (1973)
Media, Racism and Public Health Psychology
Raymond Nairn, University of Auckland, Frank Pega, Tim McCreanor, Massey University, Jenny
Rankine, Words & Pictures Media Consultancy, Angela Barnes, Massey University, New
Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 2
Literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants and
indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing.
Psychiatric Contributions to Understanding Racism
Laurie Jo Moore, Auckland University School of Medicine, New Zealand
Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 37, No. 2, 147-183 (2000)
Theoretical contributions of psychiatrists to understanding racism. Racism is poorly
understood because it is a tool of socio-economic oppression. The damaging effects of
racism on physical and mental health are reviewed. Psychiatry has contributed to
psychological theories of the origins of racism. Psychoanalytic perspectives argue that
racism is not just a problem of certain people.
Ideology, Camouflage or Contingency? Racism in British Psychiatry -
Roland Littlewood, M.B., D.PHIL.- Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 30, No. 3, (1993)