Prisonization, Prison Subculture
PRISONIZATION is the fact or
process of becoming prisonized. Prisonization is the process of being socialized into the culture and social life of prison society
that adjusting to the outside society becomes difficult.
Prisonization or prison socialization, has been recognized
as a process with goals that are antithetical to the reintegration of ex-offenders.
Prisonization forms an informal
inmate code and develops from both the individual characteristics of inmates and from
institutional features of the prison. Incarceration may promote prisonization in both
novice and experienced inmates.
and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct - Wayne Gillespie
Prisonization involves the formation of an informal inmate code and develops from both
individual characteristics of inmates and from institutional features of the prison. Both
the individual characteristics of inmates and institutional qualities affect prisonization
and misconduct. Individual-level antecedents explained prisonization better than did
and leadership by John A Slosar
Forecasting sexual abuse
in prison: the prison subculture of masculinity as a backdrop for "deliberate
indifference". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology - Christopher D. Man,
John P. Cronan
Intra-Institutional Effects of "Prisonization"
A Study of a Therapeutic Community for Drug-Using Inmates
BARBARA J. PEAT, L. THOMAS WINFREE, Jr., New Mexico State University
Prisonization, or prison socialization, has long been recognized as a process with goals
that are antithetical to the reintegration of ex-offenders. It deemphasizes legitimate
authority and middle-class values. This research examines
three groups within a single-prison community,
general-population inmates, therapeutic-community participants, and inmates eligible for
the TC in order to determine the extent to which levels of prisonization can be used to
predict group membership.
Changes in Criminal
Thinking and Identity in Novice and Experienced Inmates
Glenn D. Walters, Federal Correctional Institution, Schuylkill, Pennsylvania
Criminal thinking and identity were assessed in 55 federal prison inmates with no prior
prison experience and 93 inmates with at least one prior adult incarceration or incapacitation and 5 or more years in prison. Changes on the
Self-Assertion/Deception scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Syles
and Centrality subscale of the Social Identity as a Criminal questionnaire were congruent
with the prisonization hypothesis and a priori predictions that measures of criminal
thinking and identity would rise in novice inmates between initial assessment and
follow-up but would remain stable in experienced inmates. Incarceration, it would seem,
may promote prisonization in both novice and experienced inmates.
Prisonization or Resocialization?
A Study of External Factors Associated with the Impact of Imprisonment
Charles W. Thomas, Department of Sociology, Virginia Commonwealth University
The specific variables reported in this pa per include measures of social class of origin, social class of attainment, extent of
contact with the larger society during confinement, and the inmates' perceptions of their
post-prison life-chances. These independent variables
were correlated with a measure of prisonization.
A Comparative Organizational Analysis of Prisonization
Charles W. Thomas, David M. Petersen, Robin J. Cage.
This research treats variations in the impact of confinement as problematic
and develops a model which conceptualizes prisonization as an independent variable that is
likely to have both short- and long-term consequences. Our findings reveal that
prisonization encourages opposition to the prison, a short-term consequence of
confinement. These attitudes are likely to effectively block institutional rehabilitative
efforts and to increase problems of social control for
the organization. Despite the ability of the model to predict attitudes which arguably
encourage antisocial behavior.
Prisonization and Recidivism: A Psychological Perspective
Paul Hofer, United States Penitentiary, California.
Both prisonization and criminal recidivism have been
studied as if they were effects of external, generally social, influences acting on the
offender. The article suggests that the uniquely supportive matching of the penitentiary environment with pathological aspects of the
antisocial personality provides an unconscious, characterological appeal to many inmates,
promoting expression of rebellious "prisonized" attitudes and increasing the
chance of recidivism.
In The Tube At San Quentin. The "Secondary Prisonization" of Women
Megan L. Comfort, London School of Economics and Political Science
An extension of Sykess classic analysis of the "pains of imprisonment" to
the experiences of prison visitors suggests that women experience a form of
"secondary prisonization" through their sustained contact with the correctional