Sociology Index


Books on Prisonization, Prison Subculture

PRISONIZATION is the fact or process of becoming prisonized. Prisonization is the process of being socialized into the culture and social life of prison society that adjusting to the outside society becomes difficult. Prisonization or prison socialization, has been recognized as a process with goals that are antithetical to the reintegration of ex-offenders.

Prisonization forms an informal inmate code and develops from both the individual characteristics of inmates and from institutional features of the prison. Incarceration may promote prisonization in both novice and experienced inmates.

Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct - Wayne Gillespie
Prisonization involves the formation of an informal inmate code and develops from both individual characteristics of inmates and from institutional features of the prison. Both the individual characteristics of inmates and institutional qualities affect prisonization and misconduct. Individual-level antecedents explained prisonization better than did prison-level variables.

Prisonization, friendship, and leadership by John A Slosar

Forecasting sexual abuse in prison: the prison subculture of masculinity as a backdrop for "deliberate indifference". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology - Christopher D. Man, John P. Cronan

Reducing the Intra-Institutional Effects of "Prisonization" 
A Study of a Therapeutic Community for Drug-Using Inmates 
BARBARA J. PEAT, L. THOMAS WINFREE, Jr., New Mexico State University 
Prisonization, or prison socialization, has long been recognized as a process with goals that are antithetical to the reintegration of ex-offenders. It deemphasizes legitimate authority and middle-class values. This research examines three groups within a single-prison community, general-population inmates, therapeutic-community participants, and inmates eligible for the TC in order to determine the extent to which levels of prisonization can be used to predict group membership.

Changes in Criminal Thinking and Identity in Novice and Experienced Inmates 
Prisonization Revisited 

Glenn D. Walters, Federal Correctional Institution, Schuylkill, Pennsylvania 
Criminal thinking and identity were assessed in 55 federal prison inmates with no prior prison experience and 93 inmates with at least one prior adult incarceration or incapacitation and 5 or more years in prison. Changes on the Self-Assertion/Deception scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Syles and Centrality subscale of the Social Identity as a Criminal questionnaire were congruent with the prisonization hypothesis and a priori predictions that measures of criminal thinking and identity would rise in novice inmates between initial assessment and follow-up but would remain stable in experienced inmates. Incarceration, it would seem, may promote prisonization in both novice and experienced inmates.

Prisonization or Resocialization
A Study of External Factors Associated with the Impact of Imprisonment 
Charles W. Thomas, Department of Sociology, Virginia Commonwealth University 
The specific variables reported in this pa per include measures of social class of origin, social class of attainment, extent of contact with the larger society during confinement, and the inmates' perceptions of their post-prison life-chances. These independent variables were correlated with a measure of prisonization.

A Comparative Organizational Analysis of Prisonization 
Charles W. Thomas, David M. Petersen, Robin J. Cage.
This research treats variations in the impact of confinement as problematic and develops a model which conceptualizes prisonization as an independent variable that is likely to have both short- and long-term consequences. Our findings reveal that prisonization encourages opposition to the prison, a short-term consequence of confinement. These attitudes are likely to effectively block institutional rehabilitative efforts and to increase problems of social control for the organization. Despite the ability of the model to predict attitudes which arguably encourage antisocial behavior.

Prisonization and Recidivism: A Psychological Perspective 
Paul Hofer, United States Penitentiary, California. 
Both prisonization and criminal recidivism have been studied as if they were effects of external, generally social, influences acting on the offender. The article suggests that the uniquely supportive matching of the penitentiary environment with pathological aspects of the antisocial personality provides an unconscious, characterological appeal to many inmates, promoting expression of rebellious "prisonized" attitudes and increasing the chance of recidivism.

In The Tube At San Quentin. The "Secondary Prisonization" of Women Visiting Inmates.
Megan L. Comfort, London School of Economics and Political Science 
An extension of Sykes’s classic analysis of the "pains of imprisonment" to the experiences of prison visitors suggests that women experience a form of "secondary prisonization" through their sustained contact with the correctional institution.