It is a known fact that polarization of classes in this society is going to occur between those individuals who have technological know-how and the have-nots. Polarization of classes in Marxian analysis is the inevitable historical process of the class structure becoming increasingly polarized. Over time, it is argued, the secondary classes of capitalism (the self-employed, the residual aristocracy) will disappear and be absorbed into either the bourgeois class or the proletariat. The class structure will come to consist only of these two classes. The abstract space of technological and financial globalization can have profound effects on the practice of everyday life at the level of the local, as well as the regional and national level of citizenship and the state.
What each of these levels, within each of their respective borders share, is a growing concentration of wealth and poverty and polarization of classes; within cities and states, between states, and between supranational regions, polarizations are increasing. Instead of merely asserting a tendency toward a polarization of classes, Karl Marx predicted ever-increasing misery for the mass of the population. And it was this ever-increasing misery that would lead the masses to the revolutionary overthrow of capitalism. The continuous increase of productivity signified not increasing polarization of classes in society and the eventual destruction of the middle class, but steady improvements for the workers and the increase of the middle class. Thus, the role of the Social Democracy was not to dissolve this society and to make proletarians of all its members.
There did exist serious reasons for thinking that capitalism inevitably implied an increasing polarization of classes, the absolute pauperization of the proletariat, a progressive fall in the rate of profits, anarchism, periodic crises of overproduction, massive unemployment and the disappearance of the middle classes.