Sociology Index


The term 'pink-collar crime' was coined by Kathleen Daly during the 1980s to describe embezzlement type crimes that typically were committed by women based on limited opportunity. Pink-collar criminals are increasing not only in numbers but also in the amounts they steal. The term 'pink-collar crime' describes the growing number of women office workers like bookkeepers, office managers, and clerks who steal from their employers. Women were more likely to have committed low level pink-collar crimes such as check kiting and book-keeping fraud from positions of less power compared to men who engaged in acts of white-collar crime. Kelly Paxton, a Portland, Oregon-based private investigator known as the Pink-Collar Crime Lady, says she isn’t surprised that pink-collar crime arrest rates are going up: “Women suddenly have the financial pressures that men have had for decades. They’re the breadwinners in 40% of all households. If these women can’t pay the bills, some will resort to committing crimes.”  - Female fugitives: why is 'pink-collar crime' on the rise? The Guardian, 13 Jan 2020.

Pink-Collar crimes are on the rise as compared to other types like white collar crime, Blue-collar Crime, Red-collar Crime and Green-collar Crimes. Some experts have pointed to the perception that pink-collar crime is victimless crime. Law enforcement officials believe that pink-collar crimes don’t have the same physical evidence of harm in the way a murder or an assault case does. Pink-Collar crimes are not just those that are committed in pink-collar ghetto and conventional crime may also be committed in pink-collar ghetto. Pink-collar criminals use the same tactics as men. These are human characteristics not male or female, they are not gender issues in science. Women are making a lot of money now and it will only increase as their opportunity increases. Pink-Collar crimes are driven by the same factors and motivations as men.

What Are Pink Collar Crimes? A New CBS Docuseries Focuses On A Specific Type Of Female Offender. - By JORDAN LAUF.
Heard of white collar crimes. Heard of blue collar crimes. But pink collar crimes? That's a term which will gain more traction in the lexicon, thanks to the new CBS true crime show, Pink Collar Crimes. The term Pink-collar in pink-collar crime denotes jobs and employment sectors dominated by women workers. Freda Adler argues that opportunity is central to understanding the involvement of women in white-collar crime: There is no masculinization. Women have broken the glass-ceiling because the doors have been opened. The phrase pink collar was used in order to distinguish certain jobs from white collar jobs, and also to distinguish women in these roles from other white-collar workers. Pink collar work did not require much professional training and did not offer equal pay or prestige. Pink collar positions have increased as more and more women enter the workforce. Industrialization has increased the scope for the services provided by pink collar workers.

Abstract: In the criminological studies of the woman as a perpetrator of criminal acts, it is of crucial importance to mention her gradual escalation of representation in the total recorded crime, globally speaking. Stressing the importance of developing a dose of "feminist" approach into the criminology, which would be no more but a separate study of a woman as a perpetrator, the starting point would be the analyze of the types of the crimes she commits, applying the gender-sensitized mark in the process. The term “pink collar” crime appears as a counterpart to the "white collar" crime and is carried out by women whose office jobs can be characterized as being low to medium level. Women's involvement in the white - collar criminality exists, but significantly less often than that of a man, and is carried out from significantly lower positions. Therefore, it gets an appropriate theoretical title (pink collar crime) and develops an understanding for the lack of study of the phenomena..

Gender in White-Collar Crime: An Empirical Study of Pink-Collar Criminals. - Petter Gottschalk, Lars Glaso.
Abstract: This article is based on a sample of 255 convicted white-collar criminals in Norway from 2009 to 2012. Only 20 out of 255 white-collar criminals presented in Norwegian newspapers in the years from 2009 to 2012 were women. In the popular press, white-collar crime committed by women is sometimes labeled pink-collar crime. A number of reasons for this gender discrepance are discussed. Women’s access to organizational power structures is rising, but remains still limited. This is in line with opportunity theory. Women may have a greater sense of risk aversion rather than risk willingness, and women may more easily be perceived as victims of crime.

Catch her if you can - Pink-collar criminals. Kelly Paxton. Freda Adler, author of "Sisters in Crime: The Rise of the New Female Criminal" said she had to defend her work for years after the publication of her book in 1975. Adler would scarcely have to defend her thesis in today's environment. So the question turns to what has changed to increase the number of pink-collar criminals? Put simply, more women are in the workplace and have access to funds.

Investigating Pink Collar Crime with Kelly Paxton. PJ Rohall. As a certified fraud examiner (CFE), speaker, teacher and domain expert, she uses her knowledge to educate individuals and businesses about the many facets of pink-collar crime. Kelly recently took a few moment to talk with FraudBeat and provide some insights into investigation strategy, tactics and the psychology behind pink-collar crime. What is pink collar crime and how does it differ from other forms of fraud? Pink collar crime is primarily embezzlement by lower level employees, who are most likely females, in the workforce. Considering embezzlement is the primary type of pink-collar crime, how do criminals execute their embezzlement schemes? Forged checks, unauthorized checks, wire transfers, cash skimming… it’s all about taking money out of a business for their own benefit. The people who commit pink collar crime have the opportunity to steal due to their position and responsibilities. The roles that allow pink collar crime to happen include anyone in a financial capacity. CBS recently launched a show called “Pink Collar Crimes“. How well does the show cover this type of crime in your opinion? The show did not accurately show pink collar crimes. Men can be pink collar criminals. Unfortunately, it showed women in a poor light. They could have actually done research on what is a pink-collar crime instead of just saying it was female.

Female fugitives: why is 'pink-collar crime' on the rise?
The number of women being convicted for violent crimes has increased significantly over the past three decades. Rene Chun.
Kelly Paxton, a Portland, Oregon-based private investigator known as the Pink-Collar Crime Lady, says she isn’t surprised that female arrest rates are going up: “Women suddenly have the financial pressures that men have had for decades. They’re the breadwinners in 40% of all households. If these women can’t pay the bills, some will resort to committing crimes.”
The Pink-Collar Crime Lady has her own gender gap theory, and it doesn’t have anything to do with feminism, chivalrous judges or menstrual cycles. “Women nurture and raise us. We love and trust them,” explains Kelly Paxton. “So being a female crook is the perfect cover.” Then she shares some insider wisdom: “The first thing I tell clients is never underestimate a woman. They’re ruthless.”

What is Pink Collar Crime?
Everyone knows the saying White Collar Criminal (think Bernie Madoff or a young, male hedge fund trader in Showtime's Billions), but when I say Pink Collar Criminal they have a puzzled look. A Pink Collar Criminal can be a PTA mom, your dentist’s office manager, and yes even someone’s grandma. The statistics on Pink Collar Criminals are alarming. According to the FBI, male embezzlers have increased only 4% since 1990 while Pink Collar Criminals have increased over 40% during that time period.