Society has several mechanisms for building us and our personality. The first mechanism is socialization and the second mechanism is social control. By defining what behavior is good, society also defines what is deviant behavior. Through socialization we learn who we are and what is expected of us and others in our culture. All of our identities come from society. Socialization begins in childhood and continues throughout our lives as we encounter and move through different institutions.
Society provides us with ideologies, justifications for our systems of socialization, social control and stratification, and other social arrangements. Sociologists use the term sociological imagination to describe the ability to see the impact of these processes on our private lives, i.e., that we are a consequence of society. People are also the cause of society, i.e., we build it. Because of the continuous operation of the four mechanisms society uses to produce us, it is difficult for a single person to make significant societal changes. However, many important changes happen because of social movements, which consist of many people organized to promote social change. We participate in socializing others, carrying out social control, reproducing the stratification system, and promoting ideologies. Sociologists use the term the social construction of reality to describe how people build the social world, especially as it is done through our everyday interactions. - David Schweingruber.
Different perspectives have been taken on the study of personality. The psychodynamic tradition has been characterized by an emphasis on intensive observation of human behavior in clinical settings as the basis for developing and modifying theories, with little focus on defining theories in a manner that allows them to be disproven based on contrary evidence. The tradition of personality research has attempted to present theories which can be supported or disproven scientifically. In both cases, the usefulness of a theory in advancing knowledge about personality depends on the relationship between the theory and the method in which it was derived. For instance, a theory built and modified almost exclusively based on intensive observation of human behavior may have more relevance to actual personality functioning than a theory which was derived in part based on defining terms that can be conveniently tested. In fact, the history of personality research has been characterized by self-criticism and dramatic shifts in methodology - University of Virginia
Society has several mechanisms for building us and our personality. The first mechanism is socialization. A second mechanism society has for building us is social control, which is used to re-build deviants or at least keep them from interfering with the normal operation of society. Social control ranges from gossip and ridicule to imprisonment and execution.
Society also has mechanisms for distributing valued resources. Through stratification society categorizes people and distributes valued resources to them based on the categories. Among the most important categories are class, race and gender. Our social class, race and gender affect how we are socialized, what type of social control we face, what opportunities we receive and what obstacles weface.
A Complementary Perspective to Primary Socialization
David N. Nurco, D.S.W., Monroe Lerner, Ph.D., L.H.D. (Hon.) Abstract: Primary socialization theory as formulated by Oetting and his associates emphasizes the transmission of societal norms during childhood and adolescence within societys three major socializing agencies: family, school, and small, intimate peer groups. The norms thus transmitted may be pro-social or deviant, with pro-social norms more likely to be transmitted through strong bonds to healthy families or schools. Personality traits and other personal characteristics influence negative outcomes only to the extent that they interfere with socialization.
Our research does not address primary socialization theory directly. We have studied social factors, personality factors, and various psychopathologies as etiological for deviance and substance abuse. Our research has supported the hypotheses of primary socialization theory.
Personality and Socialization - Bibliography
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Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research by Joan E. Grusec and Paul D. Hastings
Personality and Social Behavior (Frontiers of Social Psychology) Frederick Rhodewalt
Personality Psychology:Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J Larsen David M Buss
Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (4th Edition) by Howard S. Friedman and Miriam W. Schustack
Social Structure and Personality by Talcott Parsons
Family: Socialization and Interaction Process - Robert F. Bales
Theories of Personality Book by Calvin S. Hall, Gardner Lindzey, John B. Campbell
Personality by Jerry M. Burger
Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research by Joan E. Grusec and Paul D. Hastings
Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, Second Edition Book by Lawrence A. Pervin (Editor), Oliver P. John (Editor)
Motivational Science: Social and Personality Perspectives: Key Readings (Key Readings in Social Psychology) by E.tory Higgins
Personality in Intimate Relationships: Socialization and Psychopathology Luciano L'Abate
Social and Personality Development Book by David R. Shaffer
Self-theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development (Essays in Social Psychology) Book by Carol S. Dweck
Personality: Theory and Research Lawrence A. Pervin, Daniel Cervone, Oliver P. John
and Work: Reconsidering the Role of Personality in Organizations
Book by Murray Barrick (Editor), Ann Marie Ryan (Editor)
Handbook of Personality Psychology Book by Robert Hogan, John Johnson, Stephen Briggs
Child Training and Personality: A Cross-Cultural Study John W. M. Whiting, Irvin L. Child
Handbook of Child Psychology, Socialization, Personality and Social Development (Handbook of Child Psychology) Book by Paul Mussen, E. Mavis Hetherington (Editors)
Personality in Adulthood, A Five-Factor Theory Perspective Book by Robert R. McCrae, Paul T. Costa Jr.
Paradigms of Personality Assessment Book by Jerry S. Wiggins
Social Structure and Personality Development: The Individual as a Productive Processor of Reality Book by Klaus Hurrelmann
SOCIAL STRUCTURE & PERSON Book by Talcott Parsons
The Incomplete Adult: Social Class Constraints on Personality Development (Contributions in Sociology) Book by Margaret J. Lundberg
and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence
Book by William Damon.