Sociology Index


Society has several mechanisms for building our personality. The first mechanism is socialization and the second mechanism is social control. By defining what behavior is good, society also defines what is deviant behavior. Through socialization we learn who we are and what is expected of us and others in our culture. All of our identities come from society. Socialization begins in childhood and continues throughout our lives, building our personality as we move through different institutions. Socialization helps in the process of personality formation. Even if human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it. Our social class, race and gender affect how we are socialized.

Society provides us with ideologies, justifications for our systems of socialization, social control and stratification, and other social arrangements. Sociologists use the term sociological imagination to describe the ability to see the impact of these processes on our private lives, that we are a consequence of society.

Because of the continuous operation of the four mechanisms society uses to produce us, Panerai Replica it is difficult for a single person to make significant societal changes. However, many important changes happen because of social movements, which consist of many people organized to promote social change. We participate in socializing others, carrying out social control, reproducing the stratification system, and promoting ideologies. Sociologists use the term the social construction of reality to describe how people build the social world, especially as it is done through our everyday interactions. - David Schweingruber.

Different perspectives have been taken on the study of personality. The tradition of personality research has attempted to present theories which can be supported or disproven scientifically. In both cases, the usefulness of a theory in advancing knowledge about personality depends on the relationship between the theory and the method in which it was derived. The history of personality research has been characterized by self-criticism and dramatic shifts in methodology.

A Complementary Perspective to Primary Socialization Theory
David N. Nurco, D.S.W., Monroe Lerner, Ph.D., L.H.D. (Hon.)

Abstract: Primary socialization theory as formulated by Oetting and his associates emphasizes the transmission of societal norms during childhood and adolescence within society’s three major socializing agencies: family, school, and small, intimate peer groups.

Personality traits and other personal characteristics influence negative outcomes only to the extent that they interfere with socialization. Our research does not address primary socialization theory directly. We have studied social factors, personality factors, and various psychopathologies as etiological for deviance and substance abuse. Our research has supported the hypotheses of primary socialization theory.

Personality and Socialization Bibliography

Carlson, R. (1984). What’s social about social psychology? Where’s the person in personality research? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1304-1309.

Allport, F. H., & Allport, G. W. (1921). Personality traits: Their classification and measurement. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 16, 6-40.

Allport, G. W. (1933). The study of personality by the experimental method. Character and Personality; a Quarterly for Psychodiagnostic and Allied Studies, 1, 259-264.

Murray, H. A. (1936). Basic concepts for a psychology of personality. Journal of General Psychology, 15, 241-268.

Cattell, R. B. (1950). Personality: A systematic, theoretical, and factual study. New York: McGraw-Hill. With good bibliography. [Read chapters 3-7 and 9.]

Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 89, 730-755.

Fiske, D. W. (1974). The limits of the conventional science of personality. Journal of Personality, 42

Rorer, L. G., & Widiger, T. A. (1983). Personality structure and assessment. Annual Review of Psychology, 34, 431-463.

Kihlstrom, J. F., & Hastie, R. (1997). Mental representations of persons and personality. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.) Handbook of Personality Psychology (pp.712-736). San Diego: Academic Press. With good bibliography.

McAdams, D. P., Diamond, A., de St. Aubin, E., Mansfield, E. (1997). Stories of commitment: The psychosocial construction of generative lives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 678-694.

Buss, D. M. (1991). Evolutionary personality psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 42.

Kagan, J., Arcus, D., & Snidman, N. (1993). The idea of temperament: Where do we go from here? In R. Plomin & G. E. McClearn (Eds.), Nature, nurture, and psychology (pp. 197-210). With good bibliography. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

McClelland, D. C. (1951). Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. With good bibliography.

Kernberg, O. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson. With good bibliography. [Read chapters 1-3 and 5.]

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1987). Validation of the five factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1997). Longitudinal stability of adult personality. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 269-285). San Diego: Academic Press. With good bibliography.

Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist, 48, 26-34.

Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1988). Mood and the mundane: Relations between daily life events and self-reported mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 296-308.

Watson, D., & Hubbard, B. (1998). Adaptational style and dispositional structure: Coping in the context of the five-factor model. Journal of Personality, 64, 737-774.

Revelle, W. (1995). Personality processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 295-328.

Winter, D. G., John, O. P., Stewart, A. J., Klohnen, E. C., Duncan, L. E. (1998). Traits and motives: Toward an integration of two traditions of personality research. Psychological Review, 105, 230-250.

Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102, 246-268.

McAdams, D. P. (1992). The five-factor model in personality: A critical appraisal. Journal of Personality, 60, 329-361.

Personality and Social Behavior (Frontiers of Social Psychology) Frederick Rhodewalt.

Personality Psychology:Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J Larsen David M Buss.

Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research by Howard S. Friedman and Miriam W. Schustack.

Social Structure and Personality by Talcott Parsons.

Family: Socialization and Interaction Process - Robert F. Bales.

Theories of Personality Book by Calvin S. Hall, Gardner Lindzey, John B. Campbell

Personality by Jerry M. Burger.

Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research by Joan E. Grusec and Paul D. Hastings.

Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, Second Edition Book by Lawrence A. Pervin (Editor), Oliver P. John (Editor).

Motivational Science: Social and Personality Perspectives: Key Readings (Key Readings in Social Psychology) by E.tory Higgins.

Personality in Intimate Relationships: Socialization and Psychopathology Luciano L'Abate.

Social and Personality Development Book by David R. Shaffer.

Self-theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development (Essays in Social Psychology) Book by Carol S. Dweck.

Personality: Theory and Research Lawrence A. Pervin, Daniel Cervone, Oliver P. John.

Personality and Work: Reconsidering the Role of Personality in Organizations
Book by Murray Barrick (Editor), Ann Marie Ryan (Editor).

Handbook of Personality Psychology Book by Robert Hogan, John Johnson, Stephen Briggs.

Child Training and Personality: A Cross-Cultural Study John W. M. Whiting, Irvin L. Child.

Handbook of Child Psychology, Socialization, Personality and Social Development (Handbook of Child Psychology) Book by Paul Mussen, E. Mavis Hetherington (Editors).

Personality in Adulthood, A Five-Factor Theory Perspective Book by Robert R. McCrae, Paul T. Costa Jr.

Paradigms of Personality Assessment Book by Jerry S. Wiggins.

Social Structure and Personality Development: The Individual as a Productive Processor of Reality Book by Klaus Hurrelmann.

The Incomplete Adult: Social Class Constraints on Personality Development (Contributions in Sociology) Book by Margaret J. Lundberg.

Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence
Book by William Damon.