Sociology Index

PER CAPITA

In Per Capita, 'Capita' comes from a Latin term referring to head. Criminologists and sociologists refer to crimes rates and divorce rates, per capita. If there are only 0.01 crimes per capita, this would mean that you have a risk of 1% of being victimised. Criminologists usually use the idea of a rate per 100,000 rather than the idea of per capita. Per capita income is determined by dividing the total income of a region or county residents by the total population.

Per capita income is a measure of the wealth as well as an indicator of the economic health of that region or country.

The Effect of State Income Taxation on Per Capita Income Growth - Randall G. Holcombe, Florida State Univ, Donald J. Lacombe, Ohio Univ - Public Finance Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, (2004).
This study examines the impact of changes in marginal state income tax rates on per capita income by comparing income growth in counties on state borders with income growth in adjacent counties across the state border.

Compared to a standard cross-sectional research analysis, the results show that over the 30-year period from 1960 to 1990, states that raised their income tax rates more than their neighbors had slower income growth and, on average, a 3.4% reduction in per capita income.

Demographic destiny, per-capita consumption and the Japanese saving-investment balance, R Dekle, Oxf Rev Econ Policy 2000; 16:46-60.
Japan's investment rate will remain close to its current level of 29 per cent. Japan's current account, will steadily decrease from its current level and will turn negative in 2025. We project the impact of demographic change on the evolution of Japanese consumption per capita, or 'living standards'. We project that per-capita consumption will grow. Under certain scenarios, consumption per capita falls in most years after 2010.

Human capital and per capita product: A comparison of US states - Saurav Dev Bhatta, Jose Lobo.
The findings indicate that human capital differences explain at least 49% of the observed difference in GSP per capita between New York and each of the poor states.

Growth Rates of Per-Capita Income and Aggregate Welfare: An International Comparison
Nanak Kakwani, University of New South Wales, The Review of Economics & Statistics, May 1997, Vol. 79, No. 2.
This paper is concerned with the measurement of aggregate growth rates, where the aggregation is over time. A new procedure suggested captures all the essential properties of a welfare function. The methodology of the paper is applied to an analysis of growth rates of per capita GNP of 83 developing countries during the 1970–1987 period.

Infant mortality, per capita income, and adult illiteracy: an ecological approach
R Tresserras, J Canela, J Alvarez, J Sentis and L Salleras, American Journal of Public Health, Vol 82, Issue 3 435-438.
The ecological association of infant mortality rate (IM) with per capita income (PI) and prevalence of adult illiteracy (AI) has been studied using countries as the unit of analysis. The ecological relative risks were 7.43 for men and 5.82 for women.

Demographic and Per Capita Income Dynamics: A Convergence Study on Demographics, Human Capital, and Per Capita Income for the US States - Joakim Persson
Finds that age distribution, educational attainment, and government size converge across the US states at rates rather similar to the convergence rate for per capita income. Using panel data, the estimated partial relation between age and the subsequent growth rate of per capita income is hump-shaped and of quantitative importance. This result is robust to conditioning on other variables and appear not only to reflect capital-dilution. These findings are consistent with an explanation that the age distribution reflects the growth effects of human capital accumulated through experience.

What contributed to the major decline in per capita cigarette consumption during California’s comprehensive tobacco control programme? Elizabeth A Gilpin, Karen Messer, Martha M White and John P Pierce. 
California experienced a notable decline in per capita cigarette consumption during its comprehensive tobacco control programme. While the portion of the decline due to quitting in the entire population in period 1 was negligible, in period 2 it accounted for 22% of the total per capita decline.
Population health benefits from reduced per capita cigarette consumption will likely occur over the longer term from fewer people becoming ever smokers.