Sociology Index

PATRILOCAL RESIDENCE

Matrilocal Residence, Neolocal Residence, Patrilineal Descent

Patrilocality refers to the custom of patrilocal residence. The custom of a newly married couple taking up residence in the groom's family household or village. Patrilocal designates or pertains to a pattern of marriage in which the couple settles in the husband's home or community.

Matrilocal Residence is the custom or practice of a new husband moving to his wife's village or household after marriage. Matrilocal residence tends to be found among matrilineal societies. Matrilocal designates or pertains to a pattern of marriage in which a married couple settles in the wife's home or community.

In social anthropology, patrilocal residence is a term referring to the social system in which a married couple resides with the husband's parents. The concept of location in patrilocal residence may extend to a town or clan territory. The practice of patrilocal residence has been found in a majority of the world's cultures that have been described ethnographically. Evidence of patrilocal residence has also been found among Neanderthals and ancient hominids.

In a patrilocal society, wife joins husband's home, where they raise their children. Children will follow the same pattern in a patrilocal society. Sons will stay and daughters will move in with their husbands' families in a patrilocal society. Families living in a patrilocal residence generally assume joint ownership of domestic sources.

An Evaluation of Alternative Theories of Matrilocal Versus Patrilocal Residence
Carol R. Ember - Hunter College of the City University of New York, Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 135-149 (1974)
This paper evaluates two alteniative theories of the conditions favoring matrilocality-one proposed by M. Ember and C. R. Ember and the other by Dicale. New cross-cultural evidence relating type of warfare to societal size suggests that warfare is more likely to play a role in determining residence than vice versa, contrary to Dicale's theory. A new model, taking Divale's findings into account, is presented.

Revolutionary social change and patrilocal residence in China. - Whyte MK
Ethnology, 1979 Jul;8(3):211-27.
Abstract: The degree to which the patrilocal form of residence of the Chinese peasant family has been altered by the revolutionary changes initiated by the Chinese communists since 1949 is examined. The source of information is intensive and semi-structured interviews conducted in Hong Kong in 1973-1974 with former residents of 63 different villages in Kwangtung, the province adjacent to the British colony. The interviews were basically ethnographic in nature.

The collectivization of agriculture, the expansion of rural education, the mobilization of women for regular field labor, and other revolutionary changes have all had a marked effect. None of these changes has served to have a necessary weakening effect on the patrilocal residence principle. Patrilocal residence continues despite the occasional ambivalence shown in efforts to publicize the many advantages of uxorilocal residence. This must be because the Chinese leadership accepts the fact that the kinds of strong, patrilocally based domestic units that are being perpetuated help to keep peasants rooted in their villages and willing to give both their energy and their loyalty to their leaders.