Sociology Index

ORGANIC SOLIDARITY

Organic solidarity is a term used by David Emile Durkheim to refer to a state of interdependency created by the specialization of roles in which individuals and institutions become acutely dependent on others in a complex division of labour. In developing his mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity distinction, David Emile Durkheim drew on the organicist thinking that influenced many intellectuals of his generation, where human societies are analyzed with analogies to biological organisms. The basis of organic solidarity is abstract and may be weakened by anomie when people fail to comprehend the ties that bind them to others. Modern societies, Durkheim argued, are held together by organic solidarity. Whereas mechanical solidarity implies that individuals resemble each other, organic solidarity presumes their difference.

In 'The Division of Labor in Society (1893)', David Emile Durkheim concluded that increased specialization has two significant and related effects: it actually changes the very nature of the social bonds that hold society together, and it encourages individualism at the expense of community. To build a good society altruism, morality, and social solidarity are essential ingredients. Because these societies are small and because everyone does much the same work, the members are all socialization is in the same pattern, share the same experiences, and hold common values.

Collective solidarity refers to a state of social bonding or interdependency based on similarity of belief, values and shared activities. Organic solidarity is social cohesion based upon the dependence individuals in advanced society have on each other. Organic solidarity is more common among industrial societies where the division of labor is more pronounced. The order and very survival of society depends on their organic solidarity or reliance on each other to perform their specific task.

Emile Durkheim distinguished between mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity. Mechanical solidarity prevails to the extent that "ideas and tendencies common to all members of the society are greater in number and intensity than those which pertain personally to each member. Organic solidarity, in contrast, develops out of differences, rather than likenesses, between individuals. Organic solidarity is a product of the division of labor. While the individual elements in organic solidarity have less in common, they are nevertheless much more interdependent than under mechanical solidarity. Each element in a differentiated society is less strongly tied to common collective routines, even though it may be bound with equal rigor to the differentiated and specialized tasks and roles that characterize systems of organic solidarity.

A Proposal to Recycle Mechanical and Organic Solidarity in Community Sociology. 
Perry, Charles - Rural Sociology, v51 n3 p263-77 Fall 1986
Abstract: Explores geographical definition of communities and tendency for community relations to transcend geographical boundaries.

Social differentiation and organic solidarity: The division of labor revisited
Journal Sociological Forum, Publisher Springer Netherlands - Hans-Peter Muller
Department of Social Sciences, Institute of Sociology, Humboldt University to Berlin, Germany.
Abstract: Durkheim's book is a classic. Yet classical neither means original nor flawless. This is shown with respect to the relationship of division of labor and organic solidarity by looking at the historical debate on the division of labor, by elucidating mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity, and by carving out some of the problems inside organic solidarity.

Solidarity, Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity - Anne M. Hornsby
Extract: French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1858–1917) coined the terms mechanical and organic solidarity to describe two types of social organization, that is, ways in which individuals are connected to each other and how they identify with the groups and societies in which they live. Social solidarity is a state of unity or cohesion that exists when people are integrated by strong social bonds and shared beliefs and also are regulated by well-developed guidelines for action. Mechanical solidarity is a simple, pre-industrial form of social cohesion and organic solidarity is a more complex form that evolves in modern societies. In developing his mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity distinction, Durkheim drew on the organicist thinking that influenced many intellectuals of his generation, where human societies are analyzed with analogies to biological organisms.

Organic Solidarity Due to the Division of Labour
Belarus State Economic University.
Everybody knows that there is a social cohesion whose cause lies in a certain conformity of all particular consciences to a common type which is none other than the psychic type of society.

Social Morals, the Sacred and State Regulation in Durkheim’s Sociology 
Ivan Varga, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada,
English Abstract: Durkheim analysed the mechanisms and types of institutions that create organic solidarity and prevent it from imploding for lack of moral cement. In conformity with his life-long preoccupation with the origins and role of morals, he laid great emphasis on professional ethics and civic morals, that ought to ensure the maintenance of solidarity and avoid, or at least reduce, anomie. His considerations, explicitly or implicitly, involve the concept of the sacred, its relationship to "political society" and morality, authority, democracy, citizenship and "world patriotism".

Sisters at Work - Career and Community Changes - ELIZABETH K. BRIODY, TERESA A. SULLIVAN, University of Texas at Austin - Work and Occupations, Vol. 15, No. 3, 313-333 (1988)
This article examines occupational differentiation of American Catholic sisters both prior to and following the Second Vatican Council. By contrast, apostolic sisters of the post-Vatican II period seem to exemplify the concept of organic solidarity; there is more variation with regard to occupations and life-style. In particular, the analysis relates the diversification in their careers to changes in their ideology and lifestyle, and the changing demographic and financial status of their congregations.