Sociology Index


When Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president of the United States in 1932 he said: ‘I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people.’ The new deal refers to the unprecedented government initiatives to stimulate industrial recovery from 1933 to 1939. These new deal programs and reforms of programs were designed to assist victims of the depression, to create employment and economic growth.


Under the new deal period, The Social Security Act of 1935 set up a system of old-age pensions and unemployment insurance. This new deal period can be seen as the beginnings of the welfare state in the United States.

The First New Deal dealt with the pressing banking crises through the Emergency Banking Act and the 1933 Banking Act. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided $500 million for relief operations, while the Civil Works Administration gave locals money to operate make-work projects in 1933–1934. Civilian Conservation Corps, the Civil Works Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, and the Social Security Administration. They provided support for farmers, the unemployed, youth and the elderly.


Can the New Deal's Three R's Be Rehabilitated? A Program-by-Program, County-by-County Analysis - PRICE V. FISHBACK, SHAWN EVERETT KANTOR, JOHN JOSEPH WALLIS.
Abstract: We examine the importance of Roosevelt's 'relief, recovery, and reform' motives to the distribution of New Deal funds across over 3,000 U.S. counties, program by program. The major relief programs most closely followed Roosevelt's three R's. Other programs were tilted more in favor of areas with higher incomes. For all programs spending for political advantage in upcoming elections was a significant factor.

How Did Women Needleworkers Influence New Deal Labor Policies in Puerto Rico?
Abstract: The implementation of the New Deal's National Industrial Recovery Act in Puerto Rico in 1933 led to conflict in the island's needle trades as workers and employers struggled first over the Code of Fair Competition for the industry and then over wages and working conditions under the National Recovery Administration.

New Deal Documents
Abstract of conversation with Mr. John Maynard Keynes - Recorded by A. P. Chew.


The diary of Rexford G. Tugwell: the New Deal, 1932 1935, edited by Michael Vincent Namorato. NY: Greenwood Press. 

Eli Ginzberg. New Deal days, 1933 1934 New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Publishers, c1997. 

The Cruikshank Chronicles : Anecdotes, Stories, and Memoirs of a New Deal Liberal by Alice M. Hoffman, Howard S. Hoffman (Editor).

Thomas H. Eliot. Recollections of the New Deal: When the People Mattered. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992.

New Deal agencies and black America in the 1930s - edited by John B. Kirby 

New Deal stage: selections from the Federal Theatre Project, 1935-1939.

New Deal and the arts: oral history interviews conducted by the Archives of American Art, 1963-1965.

Women and social movements in the United States, 1600-2000 has some full text New Deal related documents on women workers.