Nazism is the political doctrine of the National Socialist Party of Germany led by Adolf Hitler who became Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and who assumed absolute dictatorship until the defeat of Germany in 1945 at the end of World War II. Nazism is chiefly remembered for its ideology of racism or racial purity and of the superiority of the so-called Aryan race. Nazism ideology resulted in the conquest and destruction of much of Europe and its peoples and the mass murder of political opponents and those judged inferior or those with deviant behavior.
The greatest Nazi crimes were committed against the Jews of Europe on whom the Nazis unleashed a Holocaust of systematic mass killing, claiming six million victims, in the name of racial purification. Racial Theories of the Nazis are based on pseudo-scientific "studies" of the 19th century. Influenced by mystic and romantic ideas, these political currents reject the principles of equality and common humanness advanced by the enlightenment.
National Socialist ideology took the idea "race," people of the same "blood," sharing a common culture and territory. Races compete for territory and power, and only the fittest survive. Only "pure" races that do not mix with "inferior" groups are capable of creating lasting civilizations. Nazis believed that among the "white race," the "Aryans" form the elite, a "master race" destined to rule and enslave inferior races like the Slavs. But in order to fulfill their historic destiny, the Germans must first shake off "alien" political and cultural ideas and purge themselves of "inferior blood."