Narcissism from Narcissus in Greek myth was a pathologically self-absorbed young man who fell in love with his own reflection in a pool. Narcissism is a concept in psychoanalytic theory, which was popularly introduced in Sigmund Freud's essay On Narcissism (1914). Sigmund Freud, who coined the name narcissism believed that some narcissism is an essential part of all of us from birth. According to Andrew P. Morrison, a reasonable amount of healthy narcissism allows the individual's perception of his needs to be balanced in relation to others. Self-regulation in narcissists involves striving to make one’s self look and feel positive and important. Narcissism is considered a social or cultural problem. It is a factor in trait theory used in various self-report studies of personality. Narcissism is not the same as egocentrism.
Acquired situational narcissism is a form of narcissism that develops in late adolescence or adulthood, brought on by wealth, fame and the other trappings of celebrity. Coined by Robert B. Millman, Professor of Psychiatry, Cornell University. Acquired situational narcissism differs from conventional narcissism in that it develops after childhood and is triggered and supported by the celebrity-obsessed society.
Narcissism does not necessarily represent a surplus of self-esteem or of insecurity; more accurately, it encompasses a hunger for appreciation or admiration, a desire to be the center of attention, and an expectation of special treatment reflecting perceived higher status. A high level of narcissism can be damaging in romantic, familial, or professional relationships. People with narcissistic personality disorder may be generally unhappy and disappointed when they're not given the special favors or admiration they believe they deserve. A narcissistic personality disorder causes problems in many areas of life, such as relationships, work, school or financial affairs.
High levels of narcissism can manifest themselves as a pathological form as narcissistic personality disorder, whereby the patient overestimates his or her abilities and has an excessive need for admiration and affirmation. Narcissistic personality disorder is a condition defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. According to Freud, the love of the parents for their child and their attitude toward their child could be seen as a revival and reproduction of their own narcissism.
Ego Revisited - Understanding
and Transcending Narcissism
Karen M. Peoples, Ph.D., California Institute of Integral Studies - Bert Parlee, M.A. Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
While recognizing the complex interweave of prepersonal, personal, and transpersonal dimensions of narcissism, the usefulness of various meditation practices adapted to the client's structural organization is examined.
The “Why” and
“How” of Narcissism: A Process Model of Narcissistic Status Pursuit
Stathis Grapsas, Eddie Brummelman, Mitja D. Back, and Jaap J. A. Denissen
Abstract: We propose a self-regulation model of grandiose narcissism. This model illustrates an interconnected set of processes through which narcissists, individuals with relatively high levels of grandiose narcissism, pursue social status in their moment-by-moment transactions with their environments. The model demonstrates how narcissism manifests itself as a stable and consistent cluster of behaviors in pursuit of social status and how it develops and maintains itself over time.
Grandiose Narcissism Are Differentially Associated With Ability and Trait
Marcin Zajenkowski, Oliwia Maciantowicz, Kinga Szymaniak and Paweł Urban.
Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
The aim of the present study was a deeper understanding of the association between narcissism and EI. Nowadays, an increasing tendency to describe narcissism as a non–clinical personality trait is being observed among psychologists (e.g., Paulhus and Williams, 2002). Empirical data show that narcissism is connected to a variety of psychological variables such as aggression (e.g., Krizan and Johar, 2015), self–esteem and well–being (e.g., Sedikides et al., 2004; Dufner et al., 2012). We examined the association between two types of narcissism, grandiose and vulnerable, and self-reported as well as ability emotional intelligence (EI). Grandiose narcissism is characterized by high self–esteem, interpersonal dominance and a tendency to overestimate one’s capabilities, whereas vulnerable narcissism presents defensive, avoidant and hypersensitive attitude in interpersonal relations.