Sociology Index


Motivated offenders are individuals capable of committing crime, willing to commit crime and who also have a suitable target seen as vulnerable and attractive. To be motivated offender is to be ready to engage in a deviant action, and many people are motivated to offend perhaps because they have a drug dependency, are poor, lack self-control, and a number of other reasons. Such people are referred to as Motivated Offenders. It is argued that something has to happen to turn this motivation into action. Perhaps you had to get a scholarship or the offender has to see a car with the keys in it to become a Motivated Offender. Routine activities theory has been used with social disorganization theory in understanding various neighborhood crimes and motivated offence.

A Situational Crime Prevention Approach is a typical crime prevention intervention to create conditions that are unfavorable for crime. Community Crime Prevention is a crime prevention strategy with focus on the community itself to stop the motivated offender. Most often racially motivated offenders know their victims, albeit not very well.

Working With Racially Motivated Offenders - Practice Issues. Richard Edwards argued that probation staff should be unequivocally committed to work with racially motivated offenders. Here, Liz Dixon, with assistance from Toyin Okitikpi, considers the complexity and problematic nature of such work, and reviews useful theoretical frameworks and practice materials.

Direct Work with Racially Motivated Offenders - David Court, London Probation Area.
The author discusses his experience of piloting intervention materials designed for work with racially motivated offenders. Despite the difficulties in prosecuting and assessing such motivated offenders, he describes encouraging early results, showing that participants have been able to recognize the origins of their aggressive racial prejudices and identify the link with their offending behaviour.

Characteristics of a Bias Motivated Offender - Andres Molina, University of California.
Abstract: Offense characteristics of 770 hate crimes reported to the Los Angeles Police Department were analyzed. Dimensions of instrumental and reactive offenses from the case file were analyzed on the Cornell Aggression Index by raters. Raters examined the relationship of the three most common bias motivations in hate crimes and severity of violence in relation to the bias motivations.

Racially Motivated Offenders and the Probation Service (From Race and Probation, P 25-40, 2006, Sam Lewis, Peter Raynor, et al., eds. - David Smith. Abstract: Research findings show that even since the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act, many racially motivated offenses are undetected. Among the findings of such research is that racism is rarely the only motivation of such offenders. A second finding is that the portrayal of racist violence as a "hate crime" in which a victim who is unknown to the motivated offender is targeted because of his/her race is not a useful profile of the offense. A third finding is that few racially motivated offenders regard themselves as racists; and another finding is that moralizing about the evils of racism with such probationers is more likely to be met with defiance rather than a change in attitude.

Symbolic, relational, and ideological signifiers of bias-motivated offenders: toward a strategy of assessment. - Dunbar E, Department of Psychology/Center for the Study and Resolution of Interethnic/Interracial Conflict, University of California.
Developmental, ideological, and behavioral characteristics of 58 convicted hate crime offenders were examined. Ratings on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, HCR-20, and Bias Motivation Profile (BMP) were made via record review.

Patterns of Crime: Theory and Investigation
Dan Birks, Shane D Johnson and Kate J Bowers, Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London.
ABSTRACT: Crime occurs where there exist motivated offenders, suitable targets for crime and the absence of capable guardians. Thus, crime is the results of the complex interactions between multiple rational agents. However, theories of crime they have traditionally inspired research that employs a top-down rather than bottom-up methodology. Findings demonstrate that a large amount of crime is concentrated in a small number of places, against a small number of victims, and committed by relatively few motivated offenders.