Modernization Theory is a theory of social and economic development, following functionalism or consensus perspective assumptions, that societies need to have harmony among their component parts. Globalization is also responsible for spread of modernisation across borders. Under critical theory, modernization is linked to an overarching process of rationalisation.
These assumptions leads to the belief that modern economies (capitalist) demand special characteristics in their culture and the social structure. Family systems are assumed to change towards a narrow conjugal form, and away from extended structure, in order to accommodate the individualism and occupational flexibility that is demanded by a modern complex economy undergoing continual transformation.
Ronald Inglehart is among the very few scholars to have remained consistently engaged with both the study of political culture and the development of modernization theory over the past few decades. Modernisation theory seeks to establish how different societies progress and the effects of societal progress on human communication. Modernisation theory can be criticised from a neo-modernist or Marxist viewpoint as Western-centric.
In Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America and Gilman, Nils (2008) The death of modernization theory? Nils Gilman offers the intellectual history of a movement that has had far-reaching consequences.