Sociology Index


Mode of production is the dominant form of social and technical organization of economic production in a society. Historically a variety of modes of production can be distinguished based on both technology and the structure of social relationships. Historical modes of production includes hunter-gatherer society with very simple technology and common ownership. Historical modes of production includes the ancient, with more advanced technology and slavery. Historical modes of production includes the feudal, with simple technology and landowning lords and bonded serfs. Historical modes of production include the capitalist with sophisticated technology, private ownership of capital and a wage system.

Mode of production is the method of producing the necessities of life, whether for health, food, housing or needs such as education, science, nurturing. The Mode of Production is the unity of the productive forces and the relations of production. Production begins with the development of its determinative aspect, the productive forces which, once they have reached a certain level, come into conflict with the social relations of production within which they have been developing. This leads to an inevitable change in the relations of production, since in the obsolete form they cease to be indispensable condition of the production process. In its turn, the change in the relations of production, which means the substitution of the new economic basis for the old one, leads to more less rapid change in the entire society.

Therefore, the change in the Mode of Production comes about not through peoples volition, but by virtue of the correspondence between the productive relations to the character and level of development of the productive forces. Due to this, the development of society takes the form of the natural historical social change of socio-economic formations. Conflict between the productive forces and the relations of production is the economic basis of social revolution.


In all production use is made of natural forces or potencies, and the energy in the human frame is brought under the direct control of the conscious human will. In the second mode of production. In this man utilizes the vital or reproductive force of nature to aid him in the producing of wealth. The third mode of production consists in the tendency manifested only in man, by virtue of his peculiar gift of reason, that of exchanging or trading.