By mixing the notions of gender and sex this term 'masculine female' identifies those of the female sex who demonstrate features of the masculine gender.
Mindful and Masculine:
Freeing Women Leaders From the Constraints of Gender Roles
Christine Kawakami, Judith B. White & Ellen J. Langer
Journal of Social Issues, Volume 56 Issue 1 Page 49 - Spring 2000 Volume 56 Issue 1
Despite gains in women's status, successful leaders are more likely to be men than women. The styles that successful leaders set tend to be masculine.
Female leaders face a paradox: If they emulate a masculine leadership style, their male subordinates will dislike them. If they adopt a stereotypically warmand nurturing feminine style, they will be liked, but not respected. Two experiments found that female leaders who are mindful can escape this paradox. In an experiment, college-aged men perceived a woman who was masculine and mindful to be a better leader than a woman who was masculine and mindless. A second experiment replicated that result with middle-aged businessmen.
Is it Sex or Personality?
- The Impact of Sex-Stereotypes on Discrimination in Applicant Selection - Doris
Weichselbaumer, Department of Economics, University of Linz
Abstract: While studies on sex-discrimination typically control for human capital, there is usually no information on personal traits available. We argue, personality might affect productivity just as human capital. To gather the necessary data a field experiment is conducted.
Detailed application material was constructed for three candidates of identical human capital: a male, a masculine female and a feminine female. The gender identity was manipulated by indicators such as hobbies and photographs.
The masculine female and the male candidate only differed with respect to sex.
Since the male and the masculine female are equivalent in all possibly productive characteristics, they should be treated the same. If one of the two was invited to an interview but the other was not this was attributed to discrimination.
In traditionally male professions masculinity is highly valued, so we expect the feminine woman to be the least successful, while the male and masculine female are treated equally favorably.
Results: The experimentally gained data is presented to give a systematic comparison of the successrates of different applicants (m = male, mf = masculine female, ff = feminine female) for the different tested occupations.
Masculine occupations: As was argued, the masculine female, who proves to obtain the required masculine characteristics, should be treated like the male applicant, while the feminine female should fare less successful since she does not provide these traits.