The term 'masculine female' identifies those of the female sex who demonstrate features of the masculine gender. Female leaders face a paradox: If they emulate a masculine leadership style, their male subordinates will dislike them. If they adopt a stereotypically warm and nurturing feminine style, they will be liked, but not respected.
In traditionally male professions masculinity is highly valued, so we expect the feminine woman to be the least successful, while the male and masculine female are treated equally favorably. Androgyny is a personality which holds a balance of feminine and masculine characteristics. Virilization or Masculinization is the development of secondary male characteristics in women due to an excess of androgens or male hormones.
Is it Sex or Personality? - The Impact of Sex-Stereotypes on Discrimination in Applicant Selection - Doris Weichselbaumer, Department of Economics, University of Linz.
Abstract: While studies on sex-discrimination typically control for human capital, there is usually no information on personal traits available. Detailed application material was constructed for three candidates of identical human capital: a male, a masculine female and a feminine female. The masculine female and the male candidate only differed with respect to sex.
Since the male and the masculine female are equivalent in all possibly productive characteristics, they should be treated the same. Data is presented to give a systematic comparison of the success rates of different applicants (m = male, mf = masculine female, ff = feminine female) for the different tested occupations. As was argued, the masculine female, who proves to obtain the required masculine characteristics, should be treated like the male applicant, while the feminine female should fare less successful since she does not provide these traits.
Why Do Lesbians Often Like Masculine female, Yet Have No Attraction to Men of Equal Masculinity or Femininity? Some lesbians like masculine females and some lesbians are masculine females.
Mindful and Masculine:
Freeing Women Leaders From the Constraints of Gender Roles.
Christine Kawakami, Judith B. White &
Ellen J. Langer. Journal of Social Issues, Volume 56 Issue 1 Page 49 - Spring
2000 Volume 56 Issue 1.
Despite gains in women's status, successful leaders are more likely to be men than women. The styles that successful leaders set tend to be masculine.