Socialist Feminism, Marxism, Feminism, Liberal feminism
Marxist Feminism is a form of feminism which believes that women's oppression is a symptom of a
more fundamental form of oppression.
Marxist Feminism postulates that
women are not oppressed by men or by sexism, but by capitalism
itself. If all women are to be liberated, capitalism must be replaced with socialism.
Marxist feminists believe that
private property leads to economic inequality and negetive social relations between men
and women. According to Marxist feminism theory capitalism should be replaced with
socialism in order to achieve equality and positive social relations between men and
In Freidrich Engels' (1820-1895) writing, women's oppression
originated with the development of private property and of regulated family and marital
relationships. Marxist feminists believe that men's control of economic resources develops
with settled society and the development of separate spheres of life for the two sexes.
In capitalist societies, women
become segregated into the domestic sphere and men into the outer world of paid work.
Economic and social inequality between the sexes is
increased and women's' subordination in marriage, the family and in society in general is
Engels assumed that socialist
revolution, through which the means of production would become common property, would
result in the development of equal access to paid work for both men and women and the
consequent disappearance of gendered inequality between the sexes.
After establishing that sexism is not mere prejudice
against women but rather a function of capitalism, we move on to discuss the implications
of Marxist feminism for six aspects of criminal justice: females and the law, criminology
of women, females as victims, processing of females by the criminal justice system,
incarceration of women, and employment of women as criminal justice system personnel. - Marxist
Feminism: Implications for Criminal Justice - Nicole Hahn Rafter, Elena M.
Natalizia - Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 27, No. 1, 81-98 (1981)
Women in development: liberalism, Marxism and
Marxist-feminism. - Bandarage A
Abstract: This article contrasts liberal, Marxist, and Marxist-feminist positions on
economic modernization and Third World women. Liberal feminism, rooted in a belief in the inherent
viability of the capitalist system, asserts that underdevelopment in the Third World is
caused by traditional values and social structures. It is argued that the basis for
development lies in the diffusion of values, capital, technology, and political
institutions from the West. The goal is to accomplish the fuller integration of women into
the formal sectors of Third World economies. Women's oppression is regarded as
inextricably linked with class oppression, precluding the liberation of women within the
prevailing capitalist world system. The Marxist perspective helps us to understand the
interaction of sexual oppression with class oppression and imperialism.
However, it is less useful in understanding issues such as the cultural and psychological
dimensions of sexual stratification or the
changing relations between men and women under capitalism. A synthesis between Marxism, which focuses on the effects of the economy on women, and
radical feminism, which is concerned with the structure of male domination, enables a
dialectical analysis of patriarchy and capitalism.
Marxist-feminism has the potential to analyze the realities of the feminization of
poverty, female-headed households, changing sexual mores, and the presence of the
patriarchal state. To be of value, Marxist-feminist analysis must take into account the
experiences of poor Third World women rather than apply the white middle class experience globally. The issue of women in
development must become central to feminist theory if feminism is to transcend its middle
The Struggle Over Lifelong Learning: A Marxist-Feminist Analysis.
Mojab, Shahrzad; Gorman, Rachel
Abstract: Political and economic upheavals in the 1990s have left their mark on adult
education. A major source of change is globalization of the capitalist economy and its
restructuring, which make extraordinary demands on education, particularly adult
education. Lifelong learning has become an ideological distraction shifting the burden of
increasing adaptability to the worker and a ray of hope for a more democratic, engaged
citizenry. A Marxist-feminist framework explains complex social relations that underpin
the lifelong learning debate. Marxist feminism views feminism as a conscious intervention
in the hierarchically organized regime of gender power. Instead of achieving prosperity
for individual workers, reorganization of adult education is concurrent with emergence of
a newly segmented working class. Talking about lifelong learning for a unified workforce
is actually talking about a highly stratified group. By differentiating skills along lines
of race and gender, workers with a wealth of skills, knowledge, and experience are
devalued; the commodity value of white male labor continues to rise. An ever cheaper, ever
more adaptable workforce is the only way to ensure continued growth of profit in a global
capitalist system. As a citizen-centered project of social
change, lifelong learning must invigorate its ties with social movements, without which it fails to
achieve its full potential.