Sociology Index

LIFESTYLE-EXPOSURE THEORY

If you go to bed early you are less at risk than if you like to visit the bars many nights a week. Lifestyle theory or Lifestyle-exposure theory is a theory of victimization that acknowledges that not everyone has the same lifestyle and that some lifestyles expose people to more risks than do other lifestyles. Strategies for crime control would include those to increase effective guardianship and reduce the availability of motivated offenders.

Hindelang and associates have developed a lifestyle theory or lifestyle-exposure theory to explain the correlates of crime against persons, and Cohen and Felson have extended the theory to property crimes.

Within the victimology literature, lifestyle exposure theory asserts that violent offending and other forms of antisocial behavior are indicators of a lifestyle that places individuals at increased risk for violent victimization (Jensen & Brownfield, 1986).

Conventional Crime (Criminology: A Canadian Perspective, P 242-269, 1987, Rick Linden, D J Koenig
Abstract: According to this perspective, the probability of criminal victimization varies by time, space, and social setting and by the extent to which routine activities increase target suitability and reduce effective guardianship.

Crimes against persons have some different correlates than do crimes against property, but most of these differences are consistent with the lifestyle-exposure theory.

Importation, deprivation, and varieties of serving time: An integrated lifestyle-exposure model of prison offending - Andy Hochstetler, T, Matt DeLisi

Structural Equation Modeling Assessment of Key Causal Factors in Computer Crime Victimization - Authors: Choi, Kyung-Shick, Issue Date: 8-May-2008
Abstract: The components of routine activity theory were tested via structural equation modeling to assess the existence of any statistical significance between individual online lifestyles. A self-report studies survey, which contained multiple measures of computer security. The findings from this study with empirical evidence supports for the components of routine activities theory by delineating patterns of computer-crime victimization.

LIFESTYLE EXPOSURE THEORY
The "lifestyle exposure theory" was developed by Hindelang, Gottfredson, and Garofalo.
Lifestyles are patterned, regular, recurrent, prevalent, or "routine activities". Kennedy and Forde (1990:208) summarized the lifestyle/exposure model.

Research examining the relationship between lifestyles and crime should avoid pooling or aggregating crime types, because examining the effects of lifestyles on composite measures of crime leads to inconsistent findings - Lifestyle exposure theory.

Repeat and multiple victimizations: the role of individual and contextual factors. Outlaw M, Ruback B, Britt C. 
Implications for social disorganization theory, routine activity/lifestyle exposure theory, and future work on repeat victimization are discussed. - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov - Lifestyle exposure theory.

Victimization from Terrorist Attacks: Randomness or Routine Activities?
Daphna Canetti-Nisim, Gustavo Mesch, Ami Pedahzur
Abstract: We have explored core assumptions of terrorism and victimization theories by empirically testing both the randomness and the lifestyle-exposure theories. Findings indicate that victimization from suicide vis--vis other types of terrorism is related to the basics of lifestyle-exposure theories. - Lifestyle exposure theory.

Understanding Theories of Criminal Victimization 
Robert F. Meier, Terance D. Miethe
Crime and Justice, Vol. 17, 1993 (1993), pp. 459-499
Abstract: The two most widely known perspectives, lifestyle-exposure and routine activities theories, have been the object of much current thinking and empirical testing.

Lifestyle Exposure Theory Bibliography

Abercrombie, Nicholas, Cullen, Ian, Godson, Vida, Major, Sandra & Timson, Lesley. (1974). The university in an urban environment: A study of activity patterns from a planning viewpoint. London, England: Heinemann.
Akers, Ronald. (1994). Criminological theory: Introduction and evaluation. Los Angeles: Roxbury.
Bennett, Richard. (1991). "Routine activities: A cross-national assessment of a criminological perspective." Social Forces 70(1), 147-63.
Chapin, F. Stuart, Jr. (1974). Human activity patterns in the city: Things people do in time and space. New York: John Wiley & Sons. - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Clark, David. (1988). An analysis of guardian effectiveness in the prevention of residential burglary. Ph.D. Dissertation. State University of New York at Albany.
Clarke, Ronald & Felson, Marcus. (1993). Routine activity and rational choice. London, England: Transaction.
Cohen, Lawrence & Cantor, David. (1981). "Residential burglary in the united states: Lifestyle and demographic factors associated with the probability of victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 18(1), 113-27.
Cohen, Lawrence & Felson, Marcus. (1979). "Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach." American Sociological Review 44, 588-608.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Cohen, Lawrence, Felson, Marcus & Land, Kenneth. (1980). "Property crime rates in the united states: A macrodynamic analysis, 1947-1977; with ex ante forecasts for the mid-1980's." American Journal of Sociology 86, 90-118.
Cohen, Lawrence, Kluegel, James & Land, Kenneth. (1981). "Social inequality and predatory criminal victimization: An exposition and a test of a formal theory." American Sociological Review 46, 505-524.
Corrado, R., Roesch, R., Glackman, W., Evans, J. & Ledger, G. (1980). "Lifestyles and personal victimization: A test of the model with Canadian survey data." Journal of Crime and Justice 3, 129-139.
Cromwell, Paul, Olson, James & Avary, D.W. (1991). Breaking and entering: An ethnographic analysis of burglary. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.
Eck, John. (1994). Drug markets and drug places: A case-control study of the spatial structure of illicit drug dealing. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Eck, John & Weisburd, David. (1995). Crime and place. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Fattah, Ezzat. (1993). The rational choice/opportunity perspectives as a vehicle for integrating criminological and victimological theories. In Ronald Clarke & Marcus Felson (Eds.), Routine activity and rational choice. Advances in criminological theory, vol. 5. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Felson, Marcus. (1983). Ecology of crime. In S. Kadish (Ed.), Encyclopedia of crime and justice.
Felson, Marcus. (1986). Linking the criminal choices, routine activities, informal control, and criminal outcomes. In Derrick Cornish & Ronald Clarke (Eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Felson, Marcus. (1987). "Routine activities and crime prevention in the developing metropolis."Criminology 25(4), 911-931.
Felson, Marcus. (1994). Crime and everyday life: Insights and implications for society. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge Press.
Felson, Marcus. (1995). Those who discourage crime. In John Eck & David Weisburd (Eds.), Crime and place. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Felson, Marcus & Gottfredson, Michael. (1984). "Social indicators of adolescent activities near peers and parents." Journal of Marriage and the Family 46, 709-714.
Garofalo, James. (1987). Reassessing the lifestyle model of criminal victimization. In Michael Gottfredson & Travis Hirschi (Eds.), Positive criminology. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.
Godschalk, David & Godschalk, Lallie. (1966). A study of household activity patterns in Titusville, Florida. Tallahassee, Flor.: The Florida State University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Urban Research Center, Institute for Social Research.
Goldstein, Arnold. (1994). The ecology of aggression. New York: Plenum Press.
Gottfredson, Michael. (1984). Victims of crime: The dimensions of risk. Home Office Research Study No. 81, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London.
Hindelang, Michael, Gottfredson, Michael & Garofalo, James. (1978). Victims of personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger.
Hough, Mike. (1987). "Offenders' choice of targets: Findings from victim surveys." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 3(4), 355-370.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. (1979). Spatial and temporal analysis of crime: Users manual/technical manual. Chicago, Illin.: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, State of Illinois.
Kennedy, Leslie & Baron, Stephen. (1993). "Routine activities and a subculture of violence: A study of violence on the street." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 30(1), 88-112.
Kennedy, Leslie & Forde, David. (1990). "Risky lifestyles and dangerous results: Routine activities and exposure to crime." Sociology and Social Research: An International Journal 74(4), 208-211.
Lasley, James & Rosenbaum, Jill. (1988). "Routine activities and multiple personal victimization." Sociology and Social Research: An International Journal 73(1), 47-50.
LeBeau, James & Corcoran, W. (1990). "Changes in calls for police service with changes in routine activities and the arrival and passage of weather fronts." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 6, 269-291.
LeBeau, James & Coulson, Richard. (1996). "Routine activities and the spatial-temporal variation of calls for police service: the experience of opposites on the quality of life spectrum." Police Studies 19(4), 1-14.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Massey, James, Krohn, Marvin & Bonati, Lisa. (1989). "Property crime and the routine activities of individuals." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 26(4), 378-400.
Maxfield, Michael. (1987). "Lifestyle and routine activity theories of crime: Empirical studies of victimization, delinquency, and offender decision-making." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 3(4), 275-282.
Miethe, Terance, Stafford, Mark & Long, J. Scott. (1987). "Social differentiation in criminal victimization: A test of routine activities / lifestyle theories." American Sociological Review 52, 184-194.
Moriarty, Laura & Williams, James. (1996). "Examining the relationship between routine activities theory and social disorganization: An analysis of property crime victimization." American Journal of Criminal Justice 21(1), 43-59.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Riley, David. (1987). "Time and crime: The link between teenager lifestyle and delinquency." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 3(4), 339-354.
Robinson, Matthew. (1994). Environmental characteristics associated with residential burglaries of private apartment complexes predominantly occupied by university students. Master's Thesis: Florida State University School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Robinson, Matthew. (1997b). Lifestyles, routine activities, and residential burglary victimization. Ph.D. Dissertation: Florida State University School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Robinson, Matthew & Christine Robinson. (1997). "Environmental characteristics associated with residential burglary." Environment and Behavior 29(5), 657-675.   - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Roncek, Dennis & Maier, Pamela. (1991). "Bars, blocks, and crimes revisited: Linking the theory of routine activities to the empiricism of 'hot spots.'" Criminology 29(4), 725-753.
Rosenbaum, Dennis & Lavrakas, Paul. (1995). Self-reports about place: The application of survey and interview methods to the study of small areas. In John Eck & David Weisburd (Eds.), Crime and place. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Roundtree, Pamela & Land, Kenneth. (1996). "Burglary victimization, perceptions of crime risk, and routine activities: A multilevel analysis across seattle neighborhoods and census tracts." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33(2), 147-180.
Sampson, Robert & Wooldredge, John. (1987). "Linking the micro- and macro- level dimensions of lifestyle-routine activity and opportunity models of predatory victimization." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 3(4), 371-393.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Sherman, Lawrence. (1995). Hot spots of crime and criminal careers of place. In John Eck & David Weisburd (Eds.), Crime and place. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Sherman, Lawrence, Gartin, Patrick & Buerger, Michael. (1989). "Hot spots of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of place." Criminology 27(1), 27-55.
Smith, S. (1982). "Victimization in the inner city." British Journal of Criminology 22(2), 386- 402.  - Lifestyle exposure theory.
Tunnell, K. (1994). Choosing crime: The criminal calculus of property offenders. Chicago, Illin.: Nelson-Hall Publishers.
Weisburd, David. (1997). Reorienting crime prevention research and policy: from the causes of criminality to the context of crime. National Institute of Justice Research Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Wright, Richard & Decker, Scott. (1994). Burglars on the job: Streetlife and residential break- ins. Boston, Mass.: Northeastern University Press - Lifestyle exposure theory.