Sociology Index


Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. Carl Jung was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician for most of his life. Karl Jung's unconscious, as opposed to Sigmund Freud's, serves a very positive role: the engine of the collective unconscious essential to human society and culture. Carl Gustav Jung's theory of the self begins by asserting the key concepts - introversion and extraversion, and the relationship between these two components - one is dominant and the other subordinate. Karl Jung's theory assumes that the dominant characteristic will be displayed in behaviour and the subordinate one in our dreams or unconscious. The content of dreams can be explained by bringing Karl Jung's model to the inquiry.

Carl Gustav Jung's concept of the collective unconscious has often been misunderstood. In order to understand this concept, it is essential to understand his idea of the archetype, something typically foreign to the highly rational, scientifically-oriented Western mind.

Karl Jung collaborated with Sigmund Freud in the development of the psychoanalytic theory of personality, though Karl Jung later divorced himself from Freud's viewpoint because of its preoccupation with sexuality as the determinant of personality.

Karl Jung originated the concept of introvert and extravert personality, and of the four psychological functions of sensation, intuition, thinking, and feeling.

In Karl Jung's major work, The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912), he proposed the existence of a collective unconscious, which he combined with a theory of archetypes for studying the history and psychology of religion.

Karl Jung developed a distinctive tradition within psychoanalysis, known as analytical psychology, that focused on the idea that all humans share in a collective unconscious mind that is exhibited in the classic forms - or archetypes- of different cultures and in the thoughts, experiences and behaviour of individuals.

Karl Jung's primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Carl Jung believed that the unconscious also had a creative capacity. The collective unconscious of archetypes and images which made up the human psyche was processed and renewed within the unconscious. Carl Jung's unconscious is the engine of the collective unconscious essential to human society and culture.

Carl Jung and the Development of Contemporary Paganism 
Vivianne Crowley, Department of Pastoral Studies, Heythrop College, University of London
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), founder of analytical psychology, originated a system of Jungian analysis that has become one of the world's most widely known psychotherapeutic schools. Early biographies of Carl Jung were hagiographies poured from the pens of enthusiastic, devoted and grateful disciples. Professional biographers evaluated Carl Gustav Jung more objectively and sometimes with little understanding of or sympathy with his aims and methods. Many Jungian terms - extraversion, introversion, shadow, anima, animus, synchronicity - have entered intellectual and popular discourse.
Carl Gustav Jung has entered public consciousness not only as a psychiatrist turned psychotherapist but also as a cultural commentator and quasi-mystic. While Carl Gustav Jung's early writings were based on his psychiatric work, later work represents a sweep through the world's major religious traditions and many of its esoteric ones. Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity, Gnosticism, alchemy and paranormal phenomena pass under Carl Gustav Jung's scrutinizing gaze and are dissected not for their religious or metaphysical truths, in which Carl Gustav Jung professed himself uninterested, but for their psychological meaning: how could they help human beings live in contemporary society? 
Karl Jung was born into an era in which science was disproving the literal truth of religious teachings and people were seeking new ways of interpreting them. One route lay through 'scientifically' proving the existence of phenomena promised by religions, particularly life after death. The late nineteenth century was the era of spiritualism and psychical research. Another route, which Carl Gustav Jung condemned, was to seek inspiration from the East. A third route was to reinterpret religion as symbolic, an enterprise Carl Gustav Jung embraced enthusiastically in The Psychology of the Unconscious and one that caused a final break with Karl Jung's would-be mentor Sigmund Freud. Religious symbols, their interpretation, reinterpretation and revivification became the major focus of Carl Gustav Jung's later written work. Karl Jung's religious writings have produced a vast volume of secondary literature. Christians, Buddhists, Hindus and Pagans find inspiration in Carl Gustav Jung and claim him as their own. 
As yet, other than Noll's hostile and emotive work, there has been little examination of Karl Jung's influence on the development of contemporary Paganism. This paper examines Jungian influences on Wicca, Goddess spirituality and other contemporary Paganisms. It will argue that Karl Jung's ideas, while extensive and important, have been influential because they draw on earlier esotericism and hermeticism, themselves foundation stones of contemporary Pagan belief and practice.

Tina Keller's analyses with C. G. Jung and Toni Wolff, 1915-1928 
Wendy Swan - Journal of Analytical Psychology, Volume 51 Page 493 - September 2006
Abstract: This historical essay documents the clinical practices of C. G. Jung and Toni Wolff with their analysand Tina Keller, a Swiss physician and psychotherapist, during the formative years of analytical psychology (1915-1928). The topic is investigated through an examination of primary documents, largely unpublished, in English and German, based on Keller's autobiographical writings. It presents biographical information on Keller's life and details of her analyses with Jung and Wolff, emphasizing the technique of active imagination and describing the clinical practices of Jung and Wolff in Keller's analyses.

Critique of Carl Jung by Alan Pert
Jung's philosophical position 
Use of terms 
Individuation and the self 
Higher consciousness 
Spiritual reversal 
Jung fiddles the evidence 
What is the "collective unconscious"? 
Dreaming your life away 
Carl Jung and race 
Political and social views 
Karl Jung, war and Nazis 
Carl Jung and sexism 
Karl Jung and the East 
Carl Jung and gnosticism 
Philosophical position 
The work of Carl Jung has produced a range of reactions: from fervent supporters who think he has the answers (Edinger) to some who say that he underwent a Satanic initiation (Morrison, p.259).I would like to explore Jung's pivotal ideas and assess the value of his system. A starting point is to investigate his philosophical position and his theory of knowledge. He states: 
"...we are absolutely incapable of saying how the world is constituted in itself - and always shall be, since we are obliged to convert physical events into psychic processes as soon as we want to say anything about knowledge. But who can guarantee that this conversion produces anything like an adequate "objective" picture of the world? That could only be if the physical event were also a psychic one. But a great distance still seems to separate us from such an assertion. Till then, we must for better or worse content ourselves with the assumption that the psyche supplies those images and forms which alone make knowledge of objects possible." (C W 9.i,par.116). 

Jung's Synchronistic Interpretation of the Near-Death Experience: An Unnecessary Mystification, L. Stafford Betty, California State University, Bakersfield -
ABSTRACT: In his long essay on synchronicity, Carl Jung enlisted the help of a relatively complete but little known near-death experience (NDE) to illustrate his thesis. This NDE was not the famous one he himself had in 1944, but one related to him by a patient. It contained all four of Bruce Greyson's NDE components, most notably the paranormal. Jung regarded the patient's experience as a good example of synchronicity, by which he meant “the simultaneous occurrence of a certain psychic state with one or more external events.” What is remarkable, and problematical, about his view of synchronicity was that it was acausal. I develop and defend an alternative epistemology involving causality: While paranormal knowledge is hard to explain, there is no good reason to remove it from cause-and-effect discourse. I close by speculating why Jung chose to conceive of sychronicity in a manner so mystifying.

The Power of Music: A Jungian Aesthetic
ANNE T. MARSHMAN, Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
ABSTRACT: This paper explores Carl Jung’s psychological theory of artistic creation and its inherent aesthetic implications regarding the role and nature of music. Though it was not Jung’s intention to formulate a philosophic position towards art, a musical aesthetic has been extrapolated from his writings and is presented below. Modern music therapy, for example, the Bonny method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) and certain models of improvisational music therapy, have already demonstrated the practical value of marrying Jungian analytical psychology with music (Austin, 1991; Clark, 1991; Hitchcock, 1987; Worja, 1994). The Jungian musical aesthetic revealed here offers a theoretical explanation, in the language of analytical psychology, for why music is such a powerful therapeutic agent. It also bestows on music a significance and relevance that extends beyond the individual to the whole of society.