Sociology Index

Juristic Person

The term 'juristic person' includes a firm, corporation, union, association, or other organization capable of suing and being sued in a court of law." A juristic person can never be an employee. Juristic persons or juridical persons or legal persons. The concept is now central in both common-law and civil-law countries and in virtually every legal system.

A juristic person is a bearer of rights and duties that is not a natural person (that is, not a human being) but which is given legal personality by the law. A juristic person is a company or firm for example. The concept of juristic personality is not absolute. Generally, juristic persons do not have all of the same rights that natural persons have. Freedom of speech, for example.

Juristic personality, juridical personality, artificial personality and legal entity is the characteristic of a non-living entity regarded by law to have the status of personhood.

Juristic persons are entities other than human beings on which the law bestows legal subjectivity. This does not mean that they assume the guise of natural persons, but that the law for the sake of economic or social expediency recognises a thing or community or group of persons as having legal personality and therefore the capacity to be the bearer of rights and duties and the ability to participate in the life of the law in its own name.

They are called juristic persons because it is the law that accords them the status, in certain respects at least, of persons: they are artificial persons created by the law.

Similar to those of a natural person, a juristic person, juridical person, fictitious person, artificial person, legal entity and body corporate has a legal name and has certain rights, protections, privileges, responsibilities, and liabilities under law.

Juristic Person is the legal concept that corporations are liable to the same laws as 'natural persons.' But, treating corporations as individuals or juristic persons raises practical difficulties for legal enforcement and punishment.

The Theory of the State as a Sovereign Juristic Person - Kenneth C. Cole
The American Political Science Review, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Feb., 1948), pp. 16-31

The Nationality of a Juristic Person - E. Hilton Young
Harvard Law Review, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Nov., 1908), pp. 1-26

The Judgment of the Supreme Court of India, passed in a case titled S.G.P.C. Amritsar versus Shri Som Nath and others, held Guru Granth Sahib a Juristic Person.
Objection was raised by respondents before the High Court, contending that the entry in the revenue records in the name of Guru Granth Sahib was void as Guru Granth Sahib was not a juristic person. The case of the respondents was that the Guru Granth Sahib was only a sacred book of the Sikhs and it would not fall within the scope of juristic person. On the other hand, with vehemence and force, learned Counsel for the appellant, SGPC submitted that Guru Granth Sahib is a juristic person and hence it can hold property, can sue and be sued.