STAY IN THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS
Many instructional design models have been proposed (Bagdonis & Salisbury, 1994). However, the great majority of the models currently available are based on social science theories from the behavioral family, broadly defined to include information processing and cognitive science theories that "break down" content to be taught into smaller units which are then taught with direct instruction strategies. Instructional Design Model is used to describe the practice of educational technology from a particular theoretical perspective such as behaviorism. (Gropper, 1987). In the educational technology literature the term instructional design model has so many meanings that its use has little purpose without further elaboration. In some publications, Instructional Design Model roughly refers to the field called educational technology in this article (e.g., Riegeluth, 1983). Instructional design may also be the umbrella term indicating the components that should be included in an instructional package (Merril, 1988). The phrase Instructional Design has also been used to indicate the process others have used it to mean a particular model or theory that can guide the design of instruction (Wright & Conroy, 1988). Instructional design (ID) refers to the process of designing materials, and the term instructional design model (ID model) refers to a model or theory that can guide the instructional design process.
Dick (1995), for example, comments that the "historical roots of what today is referred to as instructional design was Skinnerian psychology, especially as it was manifested in programmed instruction". The Gagne-Briggs (Gagne & Briggs, 1979) and Gropper's (1987) behavioral approach to instructional design come immediately to mind.
A Recursive, Reflective Instructional Design
Model Based on Constructivist-Interpretivist Theory
- Jerry Willis, Contributing Editor. Educational Technology, v35 n6 p5-23
Discussion of instructional design focuses on a foundation for an alternative instructional design model based on social sciences theories from the constructivist family and on an interpretivist philosophy of science. Highlights include the role of language; and the nature of truth, or alternative conceptions of reality.
Instructional Design Models: What a
By: Qais Faryadi Ph.D. Candidate University: UiTM Malaysia 2007.
This review examines instructional design models and the construction of knowledge. It further explores to identify the chilling benefits of these models for the inputs and outputs of knowledge transfer. This assessment also attempts to define instructional design models through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars as well as the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Gagne, John Keller and so on. The review also summarizes a brief outline of these state of the art models for a better understanding and designing of future instructional design in the field of education.