A Recursive, Reflective Instructional Design Model Based on Constructivist-Interpretivist Theory - Jerry Willis, Contributing Editor.
Instructional Design Model: In the educational technology literature the term instructional design model has so many meanings that its use has little purpose without further elaboration. In some publications, Instructional Design Model roughly refers to the field called educational technology in this article (e.g., Riegeluth, 1983). Instructional Design Model is used to describe the practice of educational technology from a particular theoretical perspective such as behaviorism. (Gropper, 1987).
Instructional design may also be the umbrella term indicating the components that should be included in an instructional package (Merril, 1988). The phrase Instructional Design has also been used to indicate the process others have used it to mean a particular model or theory that can guide the design of instruction (Wright & Conroy, 1988). Instructional design (ID) refers to the process of designing materials, and the term instructional design model (ID model) refers to a model or theory that can guide the instructional design process.
Many instructional design models have been proposed (Bagdonis & Salisbury, 1994). However, the great majority of the models currently available are based on social science theories from the behavioral family, broadly defined to include information processing and cognitive science theories that "break down" content to be taught into smaller units which are then taught with direct instruction strategies. Dick (1995), for example, comments that the "historical roots of what today is referred to as instructional design was Skinnerian psychology, especially as it was manifested in programmed instruction". The Gagne-Briggs (Gagne & Briggs, 1979) and Gropper's (1987) behavioral approach to instructional design come immediately to mind.