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Information Privacy Law

Books On Information Privacy

Information privacy laws have been enacted for the protection of information on private individuals from misuse or disclosure. A majority of countries and independent territories have adopted comprehensive information privacy laws.

Information privacy laws include the full range of privacy issues, from Megan's Law to employee monitoring to genetic privacy. Information privacy law needs to address a number of information technology issues.

Information privacy law remains a fairly young field, and it has yet to take hold as a course taught consistently in most law schools. Information privacy laws are based on Fair Information Practices of United States Department for Health, Education and Welfare.

Information privacy laws include the principles of data protection that there should be a stated purpose for all data collected. Information privacy laws forbid disclosure of information collected to be disclosed to others unless authorized by law or by consent of the individual.

Under information privacy law, records kept on an individual should be accurate and up to date with mechanisms for individuals to review data about them, to ensure accuracy. Under information privacy law, it is mandatory that data should be deleted when it is no longer needed for the stated purpose.

Transmission of personal information to locations where "equivalent" personal data protection cannot be assured is prohibited under information privacy law. Issues of information privacy laws are being discussed both by the policy makers and the people on the street.

Information privacy law lets you teach First Amendment issues and there are not many collages teaching an information privacy law course.

The Information Privacy Law Project - Neil M. Richards
Washington University School of Law, Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 94, p. 1087, 2006
Abstract: One of the most interesting developments in privacy law literature over the past few decades has been the emergence of The Information Privacy Law Project, a group of scholars focused on the legal issues raised by the increasing collection, use, and disclosure of personal information made possible by evolving digital technologies. These scholars have sought to establish information privacy law as a field of study distinct from the constitutional right to decisional privacy. This Essay uses the recent publication of a major work by Daniel J. Solove, "The Digital Person: Privacy and Technology in the Digital Age", as a lens through which to assess two aspects of the accomplishments and potential of the Information Privacy Law Project. It argues that although information privacy law may be a useful shorthand to describe a subset of legal issues associated with the use and abuse of personal information, The Digital Person itself reveals that there are enough doctrinal, historical and theoretical linkages between informational and decisional privacy law that the two are ultimately analytically indistinct. Nevertheless, this conceptual confusion can be an opportunity for the Information Privacy Law Project, as insights drawn from decisional privacy could possibly supply solutions to some of the Information Privacy Law Project's most intractable problems. It argues that The Digital Person's assertion that the problems of personal databases are best understood by reference to Franz Kafka's "The Trial" obscures a more powerful insight that problems of databases are problems of power and consumer protection. The Essay concludes, to engage in an effort to conceive of these problems as implicating data protection law or confidentiality law than to rely so much upon the notoriously slippery, baggage-laden, and limiting concept of information privacy.

Data Surveillance and Information Privacy Law
Description: This subject examines the use of data surveillance (the techniques of social control through the use of information technology) in both the public and private sectors, and information privacy (or 'data protection') law as a response. The pervasiveness of Internet use by business, government and citizens has placed both data surveillance and privacy protection at the centre of the emerging information economy and information society. This subject examines surveillance and privacy principally through the focus of these Australian laws, but also considers their place in an emerging international context of surveillance practices and privacy laws.
The objectives of teaching and studying this subject are:
To examine the concepts of 'privacy' (particularly 'information privacy' or 'data protection') and 'surveillance' (particularly 'data surveillance') and to attempt to identify the values at issue in laws dealing with these subjects
To introduce the international agreements influencing Australia's domestic privacy laws
To undertake a reasonably comprehensive and critical survey of the key general laws (statutory and other) that protect information privacy and those that facilitate data surveillance.

INFORMATION PRIVACY LAW - Georgetown University Law Center - Prof. Marc Rotenberg
DESCRIPTION: This course examines "information privacy," an individual's right to control his or her personal information held by others. The aim of the course is to understand how courts and the Congress seek to protect information privacy as new technologies and new institutional practices emerge. The course traces the origins of the right to information privacy in American law, through Constitutional law, tort law, and modern statutory law. Case studies of landmark privacy legislation illustrate how expectations of privacy are translated into legal frameworks.
Course clusters: Constitutional law and government. Public interest law. Credits: Information Privacy Law is a three credit course.
This is the preliminary syllabus for the spring 2008 version of Information Privacy Law. For 2008, we will be looking at several emerging privacy issues, including privacy in the context of merger review and new techniques for identification.
Two books are required. Daniel J. Solove, Marc Rotenberg, and Paul Schwartz Information Privacy Law (Aspen 2006), and George Orwell, 1984 (with an afterword by Erich Fromm). One book is recommended but not required. Bruce Schneier, Beyond Fear, Thinking Sensibly About Security in an Uncertain World

I. INTRODUCTION
Topics
• Why Privacy Law Matters: Voter ID
• Course administration
• Information Privacy Law: Origins and Roots
• Fair Information Practices
• Brandeis Warren article
• Philosophical Perspectives

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 9-30, 33-38, 56-64

II. PRIVACY AND THE MEDIA
Topics
• Recognition of the Privacy Torts
• Intrusion Upon Seclusion
• Paparazzi and Video Voyeurism
• Disclosure of Illegally Obtained Information
• Defamation and the Internet
• Appropriation

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 76, 94-101, 103-104, 131-43, 152-58, 159-69, 188-206

III. INTERNATIONAL PRIVACY I
Topics
• Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights
• OECD Privacy Guidelines
• EU Data Directive

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 871-88, 900-05, 915-22
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "OECD Privacy Guidelines"
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "EU Data Directive"

IV. HEALTH AND GENETIC PRIVACY
Topics
• Privacy in Medical Care
• Medical Testing
• Privilege
• DNA Databases

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 350-56, 377-85, 390-94, 394-401, 441-50

V. PRIVACY AND THE FOURTH AMENDMENT
Topics
• Fourth Amendment and Technology
• Electronic Surveillance
• Reasonable Expectation of Privacy

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 207-21, 223-29, 232-45, 248-52, 256-62

VI. PRIVACY BY STATUTE I: LAW ENFORCEMENT
Topics
• Federal Wiretap Law
• "ECPA" and "FISA"
• The Patriot Act
• National Security Letters

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 263-72, 276-77, 277-82, 285-88, 288-92, 294-300, 300-07, 312-14, 338-43
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "Electronic Communications Privacy Act"
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act"

VII. PRIVACY BY STATUTE II: PUBLIC SECTOR RECORD SYSTEMS
Topics
• Privacy Act
• FOIA
• Privacy Policies
• Role of FTC

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 577-83, 583-94, 600-09, 612-15, 618-21
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "Privacy Act"
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "Freedom of Information Act"

VIII. PRIVACY BY STATUTE III: PRIVATE SECTOR RECORD SYSTEMS
Topics
• Third Party Records
• Internet Privacy
• First Amendment concerns

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 623-29, 642-43, 646-49, 655-57, 660-68, 669-73
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "Video Privacy Protection Act"
• Privacy Law Sourcebook "Cable Communications Policy Act"

IX. PRIVACY OF ASSOCIATION AND IDENTITY
Topics
• Privacy of Group Association
• Anonymous Speech
• Identification
• Copyright Enforcement
• WHOIS Directory

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 470-80, 490-94, 498-500, 503-04, 504-18

X. INTERNATIONAL PRIVACY II
Topics
• International Data Transfers
• Global Privacy Standards
• Passenger Profiling Redux

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 929-63

XI. PRIVACY AND PLACE
Topics
• Privacy at Home
• Privacy at School
• Privacy at Work

Assignment
• Information Privacy Law 765-801

XII. RFID TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY
XIII. PRIVACY AND THE SUPREME COURT

Assignment
U.S. v. Herring, 451 F.Supp.2d 1290 (S.D. Al. 2005)
U.S. v. Herring, 492 F.3d 1212 (11th Cir. 2007)
Petition for Writ of Certiori, Herring v. U.S., No. 07-513
Brief in Opposition, Herring v. U.S., No. 07-513
Petitioner's Reply, Herring v. U.S., No. 07-513
EPIC, Herring v. U.S., No. 07-513

Information Privacy Law
Professor Jolls
Syllabus - law.yale.edu/documents/pdf/Faculty/Information_Privacy_Law_Syllabus_Fall_2007.pdf

The casebook for the course is Solove, Rotenberg, and Schwartz, Information Privacy Law (2nd edition).
1. INTRODUCTION
Preface to the first edition (xxvii-xxviii)

A. INFORMATION PRIVACY, TECHNOLOGY, AND THE LAW
Introductory note (1-2)
Sidis v. F-R Publishing Corp. (2-5)

B. INFORMATION PRIVACY LAW: ORIGINS AND TYPES
1. Common Law
(a) The Warren and Brandeis Article
Introductory note (9-12)
Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, The Right to Privacy; Notes (12-24)
(b) The Recognition of Warren and Brandeis’s Privacy Torts
Introductory note (24-26)
William Prosser, Privacy; Notes (26-27)
Lake v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.; Notes (27-30)
(c) Privacy Protection in Tort Law
Notes (30-31)
2. Constitutional Law
Notes (33-34)
3. Statutory Law
Notes (34-38)
4. International Law
Notes (38)

C. PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES
1. The Philosophical Discourse About Privacy
Notes (39-40)
2. The Definition and the Value of Privacy
Introductory Note (40-41)
Alan Westin, Privacy and Freedom; Notes (41-46)
Julie E. Cohen, Examined Lives; Notes (46-49)
Daniel J. Solove, Conceptualizing Privacy; Notes (49-52)
Anita Allen, Coercing Privacy; Notes (52-54)
Paul M. Schwartz, Privacy and Democracy in Cyberspace; Notes (54-56)
Spiros Simitis, Reviewing Privacy in an Information Society; Notes (56-59)

1 3. Critics of Privacy
Amitai Etzioni, The Limits of Privacy; Notes (59-62)
Richard A. Posner, The Right of Privacy; Notes (62-65)
Fred H. Cate, The Privacy Problem; Notes (65-66)
4. The Feminist Perspective on Privacy
State v. Rhodes (67-69)
Reva B. Siegel, “The Rule of Love” (69-71)
Catharine A. MacKinnon, Toward a Feminist Theory of the State (71-72)
Anita L. Allen, Uneasy Access; Notes (72-74)

2. PRIVACY AND THE MEDIA
Introductory note (75)

A. INFORMATION GATHERING
1. Intrusion Upon Seclusion
Introductory note (76)
Restatement (Second) of Torts 652B; Notes (76)
Nader v. General Motors Corp.; Notes (77-81)
Dietemann v. Time, Inc. (81-84)
Desnick v. American Broadcasting Co., Inc.; Notes (84-90)
Shulman v. Group W. Productions, Inc.; Notes (90-94)
2. Paparazzi
Introductory note (94)
Galella v. Onassis (94-96)

B. DISCLOSURE OF TRUTHFUL INFORMATION
Introductory note (102)
1. Public Disclosure of Private Facts
(a) Introduction
Restatement (Second) of Torts 652D; Notes (103-04)
(b) Private Matters
Daily Times Democrat v. Graham; Notes (108-114)
(e) First Amendment Limitations
Introductory note (131-34)
Cox Broadcasting Corp. v. Cohn; Notes (134-37)
The Florida Star v. B.J.F.; Notes (137-52)
2. Disclosure of Illegally Obtained Information
Bartnicki v. Vopper; Notes (152-59)

C. DISSEMINATION OF FALSE OR MISLEADING INFORMATION
1. Defamation
Introductory note (159-61)

2 2. False Light
(a) Introduction
Restatement (Second) of Torts 652E; Notes (181-83)
(b) First Amendment Limitations
Time, Inc. v. Hill; Notes (183-85)
3. Infliction of Emotional Distress
Introductory note (185-86)
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell (186-88)

D. APPROPRIATION OF NAME OR LIKENESS
1. Introduction
Restatement (Second) of Torts 652C; Notes (188-91)
2. Name or Likeness
Carson v. Here’s Johnny Portable Toilets, Inc.; Notes (191-97)
4. Connection to Matters of Public Interest
Introductgory note (197-99)
Finger v. Omni Publications International, Ltd.; Notes (199-203)
4. First Amendment Limitations
Zacchini v. Scripps-Howard Broadcasting Co. (203-05)

3. PRIVACY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

A. THE FOURTH AMENDMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGY
1. Introduction
Notes (207-14)
2. Wiretapping, Bugging, and Beyond
Introductory note (214-15)
Olmstead v. United States; Notes (215-21)
Lopez v. United States; Notes (221-23)
Katz v. United States; Notes (223-29)
United States v. White; Notes (229-32)
3. The Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test and Emerging Technology
(a) Applying the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test
Smith v. Maryland; Notes (232-38)
United States v. Place; Notes (238)
Illinois v. Caballes; Notes (238-43)
California v. Greenwood; Notes (243-45)
Note on Plain View, Open Fields, and Curtilage (245)
Florida v. Riley; Notes (245-52)
(b) Sensory Enhancement Technology
Dow Chemical Co. v. United States; Notes (252-56)
Kyllo v. United States (256-63)

B. FEDERAL ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE LAW
1. Section 605 of the Federal Communications Act of 1934
Notes (263-64)

3 2. Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1968
Notes (264-65)
3. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986
(a) Statutory Structure
Notes (265-76)
(b) Video Surveillance
Notes (276-77)
(c) Email
Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service; Notes (277-82)
(d) Unauthorized Access to Password-Protected Websites
Notes (282-83)
(e) Content vs. Envelope Information
Notes (283-85)
4. The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
Notes (285-88)
5. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Introductory note (288-91)
Global Relief Foundation, Inc. v. O’Neil; Notes (291-92)
United States v. Isa; Notes (293-94)
6. The USA-Patriot Act
Notes (294-300)

C. INTELLIGENCE, TERRORISM, AND NATIONAL SECURITY
1. Is National Security Different?
Notes (300-03)
2. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and the “Wall”
Introductory note (303)
In re Sealed Case; Notes (304-07)
Peter Swire, The System of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Law (307-09)
The 9/11 Commission Report; Notes (309-14)
3. The Attorney General FBI Guidelines
Notes (314-17)
4. The Homeland Security Act
Notes (317)
5. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act
Introductory note (317-18)
Ronald D. Lee & Paul M. Schwartz, Beyond the “War on Terrorism” (318-20)

D. ENCRYPTION
Notes (320-23)

E. GOVERNMENT COMPUTER SEARCHES
1. The Scope of Warrants to Search Computers
Notes (323-35)

4 2. ISP Records
United States v. Hambrick; Notes (326-29)
McVeigh v. Cohen; Notes (329-33)
United States v. Kennedy; Notes (333-38)
3. Carnivore
Notes (338-39)
4. Key Logging Devices
United States v. Scarfo; Notes (339-43)

4. HEALTH AND GENETIC PRIVACY
Introductory note (345-46)

A. MEDICAL DATA AND PRIVACY IN THE INFORMATION AGE
Paul Schwartz, Privacy and the Economics of Health Care Information (346-47)
Lawrence O. Gostin, Health Information Privacy (347-48)
Simson Garfinkel, “Nobody Knows the MIB”; Notes (348-50)

B. CONFIDENTIALITY OF MEDICAL INFORMATION
1. Professional Ethics and Evidentiary Privileges
(a) Ethical Rules
Notes (350)
(b) Evidentiary Privileges
Introductory note (350-52)
Jaffee v. Redmond; Notes (352-56)
2. Tort Liability for Disclosure of Patient Information
McCormick v. England (356-58)
Hammonds v. Aetna Casualty & Surety Co.; Notes (358-63)
3. Tort Liability for Failure to Disclose Patient Information
Tarasoff v. Regents of University of California; Notes (363-69)
McIntosh v. Milano; Notes (369-75)
4. Statutory Reporting Requirements
Notes (375-77)
5. State Law Privacy Protections for Medical Information
Notes (377-79)
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Notes (379-90)

C. CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION OF MEDICAL INFORMATION
1. The Constitutional Right to Information Privacy
Introductory note (394-96)
Whalen v. Roe; Notes (396-404)
Note on 42 U.S.C. 1983 and “Constitutional Torts” (404-05)
Carter v. Broadlawns Medical Center (405-06)
Doe v. Borough of Barrington; Notes (406-09)
Doe v. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority; Notes (409-15)

5 2. The Fourth Amendment
Anonymous Fireman v. City of Willoughby; Notes (415-18)
Ferguson v. City of Charleston; Notes (418-21)

D. GENETIC INFORMATION
1. Background: Genetic Privacy
Notes (421-22)
2. Property Rights in Body Parts and DNA
Moore v. Regents of the University of California; Notes (422-36)
3. Genetic Testing and Discrimination
Introductory note (436)
Richard A. Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination (436-37)
Paul Schwartz, Privacy and the Economics of Health Care Information; Notes
(437-41)
4. DNA Databases and Identification
Introductory note (441-42)
United States v. Kincade; Notes (442-50)

7. PRIVACY, BUSINESS RECORDS, AND FINANCIAL INFORMATION

A. THE COLLECTION AND USE OF PERSONAL DATA
Notes (623-35)

E. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Peter P. Swire, Financial Privacy and the Theory of High-Tech Government
Surveillance (700-01)
1. The Credit System
Notes (702-11)

F. GOVERNMENT ACCESS TO FINANCIAL AND BUSINESS RECORDS
1. Information Gathering Without Search Warrants
(a) Administrative and Grand Jury Subpoenas
Notes (718-19)
(b) Financial Information and the Third Party Doctrine
Introductory note (719-20)
California Bankers Association v. Shultz (720-21)
United States v. Miller; Notes (721-27)
(c) The USA-Patriot Act 215 and National Security Letters
Introductory note (727-29)
Doe v. Ashcroft; Notes (730-35)

6 8. PRIVACY AND PLACE
C. PRIVACY AT WORK
1. Introduction
Note (798-801)
2. Workplace Searches
O’Connor v. Ortega; Notes (801-08)
K-Mart Corp. v. Trotti; Notes (808-09)
3. Workplace Surveillance
Thompson v. Johnson County Community College; Notes (809-12)
4. Drug Testing
National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab; Notes (813-18)
Chandler v. Miller (818-20)
Borse v. Piece Goods Shop; Notes (820-23)
5. The Issue of Consent
Baggs v. Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.; Notes (824-30)
6. Testing, Questionnaires, and Polygraphs
(a) Testing and Questionnaires
Norman-Bloodsaw v. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Notes (830-37)
Greenawalt v. Indiana Department of Corrections; Notes (837-39)
(b) Polygraph Testing
Introductory note (839)
Anderson v. City of Philadelphia; Notes (839-43)
Note on the Employee Polygraph Protection Act (843-45)
7. Employer Monitoring of the Telephone
Introductory note (845)
Watkins v. L.M. Berry & Co. (845-49)
Deal v. Spears; Notes (849-52)
8. Employer Monitoring of Mail, E-mail, and Internet Use
(a) Regular Mail
Ex Parte Jackson; Notes (852-54)
Vernars v. Young; Notes (854-55)
(b) Email
Introductory note (855)
Smyth v. Pillsbury Co.; Notes (855-59)
Fiscer v. Mt. Olive Lutheran Church; Notes (859-62)
(c) Internet Use
United States v. Simons; Notes (863-65)
Konop v. Hawaiian Airlines, Inc.; Notes (865-68)

9. INTERNATIONAL PRIVACY LAW
Introductory note (869-71)

7 A. THE OECD PRIVACY GUIDELINES
Notes (871-73)

B. THE PROTECTION OF PRIVACY IN EUROPE
1. Convergence or Divergence?
Colin J. Bennett, Convergence Revisited (873-75)
James Q. Whitman, The Two Western Cultures of Privacy; Notes (875-78)
2. European Convention of Human Rights Article 8
(a) Introduction
Introductory note (878-80)
European Convention of Human Rights Article 8; Notes (880-81)
(b) Privacy and Law Enforcement
P.G. & J.H. v. United Kingdom; Notes (882-88)
(c) Privacy and Identification
B. v. France; Notes (888-92)
(d) Privacy, Records, and Computer Databases
Rotaru v. Romania; Notes (893-97)
(e) Privacy and Place
Niemietz v. Germany; Notes (897-900)
3. The European Union Data Protection Directive
(a) Introduction
Notes (900-05)
(b) Personal Data and the Implementation of the EU Directive
Durant v. Financial Services Authority; Notes (905-15)
Criminal Proceedings Against Bodil Lindqvist; Notes (915-18)
(c) Harmonization
Notes (918-19)
(d) Supervisory Authority and Individual Remedies
Notes (919-22)

C. PRIVACY PROTECTION IN OTHER COUNTRIES
1. Canada
Introductory note (922-23)
Englander v. Telus Communications, Inc.; Notes (923-28)
2. Australia
Notes (928)
3. Japan
Notes (928-29)
4. Argentina
Notes (929)

D. INTERNATIONAL TRANSFERS OF DATA
1. International Data Transfers in Litigation
Introductory note (929-30)
Volkswagen, A.G. v. Valdez; Notes (930-33)
2. Adequate Level of Protection Under the EU Directive
Notes (933-36)
3. The Safe Harbor Arrangement
(a) Conflicting Privacy Approaches in the EU and U.S.
Notes (936-38)
(b) Safe Harbor Arrangement: Basic Principles
Introductory note (938-39)
Safe Harbor Privacy Principles (939-42)
Letter from Commission Services Transmitting the EC’s Adequacy Finding (942-45)
Commission Decision Finding the Safe Harbor to Provide Adequate Protection; Notes (945-49)
(c) Critiques of the Safe Harbor Arrangement
European Parliament Resolution; Notes (949-51)
Yves Poullet, The Safe Harbor Principles (951-53)
Joel R. Reidenberg, E-Commerce and Trans-Atlantic Privacy; Notes (953-55)
Standard Contractual Clauses for the Transfer of Personal Data to Third Countries: Frequently Asked Questions; Notes (955-57)
5. Outsourcing Information Processing to Other Countries - Introductory note (964-65)
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Offshore Outsourcing of Data Services by
Insured Institutions and Associated Consumer Privacy Risks; Notes (965-67).